Conductivity Calibration on the Ultrameter II 6PIIFCe: MyronLMeters.com

Posted by 23 Mar, 2014

Tweet  *Note: This procedure applies to the Ultrameter, PoolPro, TechPro, and D-6 Dialysate meter. a.  Fill and rinse the conductivity cell three times with a KCL standard solution. In this example, we’re using KCL-7000. b. Refill conductivity cell with same standard solution you rinsed with. c. Press         then press .   […]

 

*Note: This procedure applies to the Ultrameter, PoolPro, TechPro, and D-6 Dialysate meter.

a.  Fill and rinse the conductivity cell three times with a KCL standard solution. In this example, we’re using KCL-7000.

b. Refill conductivity cell with same standard solution you rinsed with.

c. Press

COND

 

 

 

 

then press

CAL key

.

 

 

 

The “CAL” icon will appear on the display.

display

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

d. Press

Up

 

 

 

or

Down

 

 

 

 

to step the displayed value toward the standard’s value.

In this example, we’re pressing

Down

 

 

 

 

to go down from 7032 to 7000. You can also hold a key down to scroll rapidly.

e. Press

CAL key

 

 

 

 

 

once to confirm the new value and end the calibration.

You can find technical advice and videos, the calibration solutions you need, and reliable Myron L meters
at MyronLMeters.com
Categories : Application Advice, Care and Maintenance, Product Updates, Technical Tips

Recommended Ultrameter Solutions and Accessories: MyronLMeters.com

Posted by 1 Mar, 2014

TweetA.           Conductivity/TDS Standard Solutions Your Ultrameter II has been factory calibrated with the appropriate Myron L NIST traceable KCl, NaCl, and our own 442™ standard solutions. Most Myron L conductivity standard solution bottles show three values referenced at 25°C: Conductivity in microsiemens/ micromhos, the ppm/TDS equivalents (based on our 442 Natural Water™) and NaCl standards. […]

A.           Conductivity/TDS Standard Solutions

Your Ultrameter II has been factory calibrated with the appropriate Myron L NIST traceable KCl, NaCl, and our own 442™ standard solutions. Most Myron L conductivity standard solution bottles show three values referenced at 25°C: Conductivity in microsiemens/ micromhos, the ppm/TDS equivalents (based on our 442 Natural Water™) and NaCl standards. All standards are within ±1.0% of reference solutions.

1.            Potassium Chloride (KCl)

The concentrations of these reference solutions are calculated from data in the International Critical Tables, Vol. 6. The 7000 µS is the recommended standard. Order KCL-7000 here: http://www.myronlmeters.com/Myron-L-KCL-7000-uS-32-oz-calibration-solution-p/s-kcl-7000q.htm

2.            442 Natural Water™

442 Natural Water Standard Solutions are based on the following salt proportions: 40% sodium sulfate, 40% sodium bicarbonate, and 20% sodium chloride, which represent the three predominant components (anions) in freshwater. This salt ratio has conductivity characteristics approximating fresh natural waters and was developed by Myron L over four decades ago. It is used around the world for measuring both conductivity and TDS in drinking water, ground water, lakes, streams, etc. 3000 ppm is the recommended standard. Order 442-3000 here: http://www.myronlmeters.com/442-3000-ppm-TDS-calibration-solution-32oz-quart-p/s-442-3000q.htm

Order 442-3000

3. Sodium Chloride (NaCl)

This is especially useful in sea water mix applications, as sodium chloride is the major salt component. Most Myron L standard solution labels show the ppm NaCl equivalent to the conductivity and to ppm 442 values. The 14.0 mS is the recommended standard. Order NACL-14.0 here: http://www.myronlmeters.com/Myron-L-NACL-14-0-mS-32-oz-calibration-solution-p/s-nacl-14.0q.htm

B.           pH Buffer Solutions (6PFCE)

pH buffers are available in pH values of 4, 7 and 10. Myron L buffer solutions are traceable to NIST certified pH references and are color-coded for instant identification. They are also mold inhibited and accurate to within ±0.01 pH units @ 25°C. Order 4, 7 or 10 Buffers here: http://www.myronlmeters.com/pH-Buffer-Calibration-Solutions-s/82.htm

C.           pH Sensor Storage Solution (6PFCE)

Myron L pH Sensor Storage Solution prolongs the life of the pH sensor.

Order Ultrameter pH/ORP Sensor Storage solution here: http://www.myronlmeters.com/Myron-L-pH-ORP-Sensor-Storage-Solutions-32-oz-p/s-ssq.htm

D.           Soft Protective Carry Cases

Padded Nylon carrying case features a belt clip for hands-free mobility. Two colors to choose from:

Blue – Model #: UCC  Desert Tan – Model #: UCCDT  Order your UCC Ultrameter carrying case here: http://www.myronlmeters.com/Myron-L-UCC-Canvas-Case-p/a-ucc.htm

E.            Hard Protective Carry Cases

Large case with 2 oz. bottles of calibration standard solutions (KCl-7000, 442-3000, 4, 7, & 10 pH buffers and pH storage solution). Model #: PKUU Small case (no calibration standard solutions) – Model #: UPP

Order your PKUU Ultrameter hard carrying case here: http://www.myronlmeters.com/Myron-L-PKUU-Porta-kit-Digital-Meter-Carrying-Case-p/a-pkuu.htm

F.            Replacement pH/ORP Sensor (Ultrameter 6PFCE)

pH/ORP sensor is gel filled and features a unique porous liquid junction.

It is user-replaceable and comes with easy to follow instructions.

Model #: RPR  Order your Ultrameter replacement pH/ORP sensor here: http://www.myronlmeters.com/Myron-L-RPR-Ultrameter-pH-ORP-Sensor-p/a-rpr.htm

G.           bluDock™ Wireless Data Transfer Accessory Package

This accessory lets you download the Ultrameter II stored readings to a spreadsheet on a computer. The package includes a bluDock modified circuit board in the unit, software CD, installation and operating instructions, and dongle. Model #: BLUDOCK Order your Ultrameter bluDock here: http://www.myronlmeters.com/Myron-L-BluDock-Wireless-Download-Module-p/a-bd.htm

Myron L Meters is the premier internet source for Myron L meters, solutions, parts and accessories.  Save 10% on Myron L meters when you order online at MyronLMeters.com

Categories : Product Updates

The Ultrameter II™ in Disaster Response: MyronLMeters.com

Posted by 29 Oct, 2013

TweetWhen disaster strikes, people are scared and disorganized. They need resources — safe water and proper sanitation — that aren’t easy to come by in the aftermath. Without the help of humanitarian organizations to provide assistance, large populations of survivors are subject to epidemics of cholera, diarrhea, meningitis, and other diseases as they struggle to […]

Ultrameter II 6P

Ultrameter II 6P

When disaster strikes, people are scared and disorganized. They need resources — safe water and proper sanitation — that aren’t easy to come by in the aftermath. Without the help of humanitarian organizations to provide assistance, large populations of survivors are subject to epidemics of cholera, diarrhea, meningitis, and other diseases as they struggle to meet these basic needs.

Qualified Help
Dr. Roddy Tempest, a leading designer and manufacturer of water purification systems has headed the efforts of public and private aid organizations, such as the United Nations and AmeriCares, in responding to people in crisis all over the world for over 15 years.

Dr. Tempest contributed his expertise and experience in such situ- ations as the aftermath of Hurricane Andrew in 1992, the Kosovar refugee crisis in the Balkans, the devastating earthquakes in Tur- key and the flood and mudslides that ravaged the coastal states of Venezuela in 1999. He has assisted in disaster relief efforts in Japan, Africa, Central America, and Taiwan, as well.

So when AmeriCares launched its water purification program for the inhabitants of Sri Lanka following the devastation of the tsunami on December 26, 2004, it turned to Dr. Tempest.

For this heroic effort, Dr. Tempest used two Ultrameter II 6P portable, handheld water testing instruments. Dr Tempest said the instruments gave him “a good, quick first-brush assessment of the possible water sources.”

The Ultrameter II reported and recorded instant precise measurements of Conductivity, Resistivity, TDS, ORP (REDOX), pH, and Temperature. But creating a livable situation for hundreds of thousands of displaced survivors wasn’t as easy as testing the water.

Water Doctor to the Rescue
From his offices in the United States, Dr. Tempest responded to the call for help by first reviewing satellite maps that showed the location of potential water sources in relation to groups of survivors, or Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). He assessed the total situation of the potential water sources, trying at a glance to deter- mine possible contamination by flooding or infiltration of seawater. Upon his arrival in Sri Lanka, Dr. Tempest worked 24 hours a day to determine a suitable survival supply of water for the IDPs. As indicated in the World Health Organization’s Environmental Health in Emergencies and Disasters, the required water per person per day is 15 liters / 3.963 gallons.

Faced with this daunting task, Dr. Tempest surveyed the land via helicopter and fixed wing aircraft to record the extent of the damage, the location of IDPs, and the viability of potential water sources. Some of the photographs reveal the mammoth challenge he had ahead of him. Debris lay everywhere, indicating the likelihood of surface water and well contamination. Filtration was a must.

Dr. Tempest then combined satellite imagery, the photographs and sketches of water sources from his survey and a list of supplies to determine which water sources would be targeted for testing.

Following World Health Organization guidelines, Dr. Tempest considered as many potential water sources as possible, not just the most obvious ones. These included surface and groundwater near the groups of IDPs and tankered or bottled water brought in from a distance – though this would not be suitable for the long- term supply. The preferred source would have been groundwater, especially for the long-term.

Ultrameter II in Action
Dr. Tempest used the Ultrameter II 6P to screen these sources for their potential disinfection and filtering.
First, Dr. Tempest considered whether or not potential water sources could be protected from pollution and secured. Any potential source water had to be filterable and sanitizable. If the water was brackish, it would require a certain treatment method. If it was high in turbidity, then it would require another. If the pH needed adjusting, then yet another. If the source water was not easily treatable, then the source had to be discarded as an option and a better alternative found.

The Ultrameter II provided Dr. Tempest with fast, reliable, accurate initial information on whether or not to pursue further testing and treatment of a potential source. Dr. Tempest used a multiparameter approach and tested for Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), pH, ORP (REDOX), and temperature (recorded with every reading taken.) He also tested for turbidity and bacteria using other instrumentation.

Initially, Dr. Tempest used a measurement of the mineral salt concentration using TDS calibrated to a sodium chloride solution and TDS calibrated to a natural water standard.

Right away Dr. Tempest knew whether or not the water was too saline or saturated to be filtered  economically. If the TDS is too high, filtration systems that work by reverse osmosis can be overwhelmingly expensive to operate in a disaster area, especially considering electrical costs alone. At the very least, the systems become less efficient as the TDS increases and a burden in operation and maintenance costs. This is critical for the short-term disaster response, where Dr. Tempest has to get as much safe water to IDPs in as short amount of time as possible.

High TDS can also indicate an unacceptable level of specifically known inorganic contaminants caused by industrial pollution.
And though it is not a health consideration, high TDS water often has an unpleasant taste that deters people from using it. People may try to return to old wells or other sources of previously safe drinking water that have been contaminated in the disaster. The old source may be more trusted than one that tastes “polluted.” So even though TDS is a secondary water quality standard, it can profoundly impact whether or not the new source is acceptable.

Dr. Tempest also took instant electronic pH readings using the Ultrameter II. The pH directly affects the potential to disinfect the water. pH levels beyond 8 will require substantial increases in the amount of disinfectant required or the length of time the water must be disinfected before safe consumption. And at a pH beyond 9, a residual disinfectant is extremely difficult to maintain.

pH is also critical in the long-term disaster recovery planning. pH that is too low or too high affects water balance, as well, and can contribute to either corrosion or scaling of filtration and disinfection system components and plumbing. An electronic meter is the best choice in this application as compared to colored strips or solutions or other colorimetric methods that do not produce the accuracy required to consistently and correctly balance water and maintain proper disinfection levels. The more precisely the pH is maintained, the less costly safe water production is.

Dr. Tempest also took quick ORP (REDOX) measurements using the Ultrameter II. ORP (REDOX) is the oxidation reduction potential of the water and indicates the state of the water for gaining or losing electrons. Unlike pH, which measures the water’s ability to donate or receive hydrogen ions, ORP (REDOX) values reflect the presence of all oxidizing and reducing agents — not just acids and bases. Initially, the ORP (REDOX) value gave Dr. Tempest a rough idea of the organic load in the water. A reading of 650 mV or greater indicated good water quality that could effectively be sanitized by a minimal amount of free chlorine. A value like 250 mV indicated that the organic contaminants would significantly increase chlorine demand and thereby significantly increase operation and management costs.

ORP (REDOX) is not only a good first indicator about the viability of a water source, but it also is the best way of measuring the disinfectant present in the water after treatment has begun.

Putting It All Together
Using all of the results from these parameters and based on his knowledge of the location of IDPs in relation to potential water sources, Dr. Tempest decided which source would satisfy the needs of each specific location of groups of IDPs. Where possible, water treatment technology would be designed around the quality of the source waters tested where IDPs had gathered, since it was not practical to re-locate large groups of people to distant water sources. Unfortunately, in the case of the Tsunami in Sri Lanka, oftentimes the water closest to IDPs could not be filtered and relocation was necessary.

Dr. Tempest found after his first quick assessment of potential water sources that it was not practical to supply the IDPs in parts of the Batticoloa and Ampara Districts along the eastern coast, because the source water was too saline from seawater intrusion. With limited electricity, this
made the use of reverse osmosis or desalination equipment impractical.

He ended up settling on sites that were more inland, using source waters from man-made reservoirs. IDPs were then settled inland near the cleaner water source.

However, the water in the man-made reservoirs was heavily contaminated with toxic blue-green algae.

Dr. Tempest chose microfiltration and ultrafiltration water treatment systems in the eastern district locations, taking algae-infested water over the salt-saturated, so that treatment and operation costs would be significantly less. Dr. Tempest designed, built and commissioned 4 large transportable water treatment systems, each capable of producing over 500,000 liters/day.

Plans then continued to follow through with long-term water treatment using the Tempest Environmental Systems equipment for the Sri Lankan Ministry of Urban Development and Water Supply and their National Water Supply & Drain- age Board (NWSDB). The NWSDB has 14 Ultrameter II 6Ps in current use in Sri Lanka, which are providing continuing confidence checks to ensure system equipment remains up and running properly.

The Ultrameter II 6P is an excellent multiparameter water quality meter used by thousands of water treatment professionals. The instrument can test for pH, total dissolved solids, conductivity, resistivity, oxidation reduction potential, temperature, and has the capability of testing for free chlorine. This meter handles the job of SIX single parameter testers using one single water sample. Save 10% on the Ultrameter II 6P at MyronLMeters.com.

 

 

Categories : Case Studies & Application Stories

Using LSI to preserve an Arizona treatment plant’s distribution systems

Posted by 16 Aug, 2013

Tweet                    The first thing anyone who manages water and wastewater learns is that water is the universal solvent. Because of the unique properties of that dihydrogen monoxide molecule, owing to the extreme electronegativity of the oxygen atom, water is highly polarized and dissolves almost everything with […]

Myron L Ultrameter II 6P

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The first thing anyone who manages water and wastewater learns is that water is the universal solvent. Because of the unique properties of that dihydrogen monoxide molecule, owing to the extreme electronegativity of the oxygen atom, water is highly polarized and dissolves almost everything with which it comes into contact. This fact is important when one has to maintain equipment and structures that process and distribute water because what the water has dissolved in it can cause it to be corrosive or scaling. What water generally has dissolved in it is at least some carbon dioxide and some calcium carbonate.

Carbon dioxide is ubiquitous and dissolves at the surface of the water, forming carbonic acid in solution. Calcium carbonate, dissolved by the carbonic acid, is globally present in rock formations (limestone), as well as in the physiological structures of organisms (particularly oceanic organisms) that excrete it. Calcium carbonate in its various forms is also used to buffer pH and stabilize solution in process control. Managing the calcium carbonate equilibrium becomes critical to managing any water and wastewater treatment process.

Too little calcium carbonate yields water that is not saturated and may cause corrosion and deteriorate equipment and structures. A supersaturated solution will likely precipitate calcium carbonate, causing scale, reducing efficiency and eventually leading to system failure.

LSI in AZ

One method for analyzing and managing corrosion and scale deposition of water is to use the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI). In Scottsdale, Ariz., Gary Lyons is managing LSI at his water treatment facility using the Myron L Ultrameter II 6P.

His drinking water treatment plant takes 70 million gal per day (mgd) of water from the Central Arizona Project canal and treats it for residential and commercial use. Within the 143-acre campus, the plant processes 20 mgd to of wastewater from the city of Scottsdale collection system using microfiltration and reverse osmosis (RO). Water coming from the RO treatment process is acidic around pH 5.5. It is then moved to decarbonation towers and lime is added to bring the LSI value close to zero. The water reclamation plant features 8 mgd of storage capacity. Recycled water treated by the plant is used for the irrigation of 20 Scottsdale golf courses.

There is great concern about how the water balance will affect this distribution system over time, especially due to higher total dissolved solids values. Plant technicians compute LSI values in the field with the 6Psi hand-held to determine what adjustments should be made and how in real time. The LSI calculator allows them to perform what-if scenarios on changes in pH, alkalinity, hardness and temperature. They are able to measure the effects of changes immediately as well in the facility and at distribution points.

Hardness and alkalinity are variables in the LSI calculation because they account for the availability of calcium in various forms in the water. Variables such as temperature and pH contribute to the likelihood of the formation of calcium carbonate.

The version of the LSI calculation used by the 6Psi LSI calculator is:

LSI = pH + TF + CF + AF – 12.1

In this calculation, pH = the measured value of pH in pH units; TF = 0.0117 x temperature – 0.4116; CF = 0.4341 x ln(Hrd) – 0.3926; and AF = 0.4341 x ln(AL) – 0.0074.

The first thing anyone who manages water and wastewater learns is that water is the universal solvent. Because of the unique properties of that dihydrogen monoxide molecule, owing to the extreme electronegativity of the oxygen atom, water is highly polarized and dissolves almost everything with which it comes into contact. This fact is important when one has to maintain equipment and structures that process and distribute water because what the water has dissolved in it can cause it to be corrosive or scaling. What water generally has dissolved in it is at least some carbon dioxide and some calcium carbonate.

Carbon dioxide is ubiquitous and dissolves at the surface of the water, forming carbonic acid in solution. Calcium carbonate, dissolved by the carbonic acid, is globally present in rock formations (limestone), as well as in the physiological structures of organisms (particularly oceanic organisms) that excrete it. Calcium carbonate in its various forms is also used to buffer pH and stabilize solution in process control. Managing the calcium carbonate equilibrium becomes critical to managing any water and wastewater treatment process.

Too little calcium carbonate yields water that is not saturated and may cause corrosion and deteriorate equipment and structures. A supersaturated solution will likely precipitate calcium carbonate, causing scale, reducing efficiency and eventually leading to system failure.

Indicator Analysis

LSI has been useful as a scaling/corrosion indicator in municipal water treatment for more than 70 years. The original Langelier Saturation (or Stability) Index calculation was developed by Dr. Wilfred Langelier in 1936 to be used as a tool to develop strategies to counteract corrosion of plumbing in municipal water distribution systems. It is a statement about the change in pH required to bring the calcium carbonate in water to equilibrium. LSI is a measure of the disparity between the pH of the system and the pH at which the system is saturated with calcium carbonate: LSI = pH – pH of saturation.

As such, the LSI indicates the change in pH required to bring water to equilibrium. If the LSI is +1, then the pH needs to be lowered by one unit to bring the water to equilibrium. If the LSI is -1, the pH needs to be raised by one unit to bring the water to equilibrium.

A positive saturation index means that the pH of the water is above equilibrium. The water is scaling because as pH increases, total alkalinity concentration increases. This is due to an increase in the carbonate ion, which bonds with calcium ions present in solution to form calcium carbonate (reference the carbonic acid equilibrium, in which hydrogen ions bond with carbonate ions to form bicarbonate and hydrogen ions bond with bicarbonate to form carbonic acid). Thus, any positive value for LSI is scaling.

If the pH is less than the pH of saturation, the index will be negative, which is corrosive. This means that the water is more acidic than it would be at equilibrium. There are less carbonate ions present, according to the carbonic acid equilibrium. The water will be aggressive because it has room for more ions in solution. Thus, any negative value for LSI indicates that the water may tend to be corrosive.

The use of LSI as an indicator is well documented and time-tested. Managing water balance through LSI analysis will prevent loss of efficiency and failure of equipment and structures, saving time and money.

Myron L Meters is the premier online internet retailer of the Myron L Ultrameter II 6P.  Find out more about the Ultrameter II 6P here:

https://www.myronlmeters.com/Myron-L-6P-Ultrameter-II-Multiparameter-Meter-p/dh-umii-6pii.htm

Categories : Application Advice, Case Studies & Application Stories, Technical Tips

The Ultrameter II 6P: MyronLMeters.com

Posted by 12 Jun, 2013

Tweet Myron l Meters Ultrameter II 6p from Myron L Meters

Myron l Meters Ultrameter II 6p from Myron L Meters
Categories : Product Updates

Frequently Asked Questions – MyronLMeters.com

Posted by 28 Jan, 2013

TweetHow long will my Standard Solutions and Buffers last? The warranty on all standards and buffers is one year from the date it is manufactured (see the label on the bottle). If the standards and buffers become contaminated by the user pouring test samples back into the bottle or inserting the probe into the bottle […]

How long will my Standard Solutions and Buffers last?

The warranty on all standards and buffers is one year from the date it is manufactured (see the label on the bottle). If the standards and buffers become contaminated by the user pouring test samples back into the bottle or inserting the probe into the bottle the solution will not be accurate and should be discarded. The life of standards and buffers can exceed 1 year if the bottle is stored tightly capped and is not exposed to direct sunlight or freezing temperatures. If the solution becomes frozen, do not remove the cap – allow the standard or buffer solution to thaw completely and shake the bottle vigorously before opening.

How do I clean the conductivity cell cup on the handheld units?

With everyday sampling, the cell cup may build up a residue or film on the cell walls that may cause the readings to become erratic. Use a 50/50 mixture of a common household cleaner (i.e. Lime-A-Way, CLR, Tilex, etc) and DI water. Pour into conductivity cell cup and scrub with a q-tip. Be sure to get around all the electrodes and the thermistor probe. On the DS handheld unit, use an acid brush to scrub the cell cup. Let it set for about 10 minutes. Rinse the cell cup thoroughly with tap water, then a final rinse with DI water.

The display on my Ultrameter II 6P reads “Error 1″. What does that mean?

This is possibly caused by contamination to the circuit board. One or more of the traces on the PCB have been jumped/bridged and there is a contamination. Possible moisture, condensation, dirt, dried salts or other condensation inside is a potential cause for this display.

Where can I get an operations manual for my meter?

Go to MyronLMeters.com. Click on Manuals and Literature at the top of the page. Once on the Manuals and Literature page, you’ll find application bulletins, operations manuals, material safety data sheets, and product datasheets.  All are free, downloadable pdf files.

How do I pick the correct range module for my Monitor or Monitor/Controller?

Pick a range module that covers 2/3 of your operating range. If you pick a range module that is too broad, then your accuracy will suffer or it will not show a number on the display. For example, if your operating range is 100-150 microsiemens, a range module of 0-200 microsiemens (-115) would be a good choice. A range module of 0- 5,000 microsiemens (-123) would not be a good choice for this application

Got questions? Visit us at MyronLMeters.com and Ask An Expert.

 

 

 

 

Categories : Application Advice, Care and Maintenance, Product Updates, Technical Tips

Environmental Applications Bulletin – MyronLMeters.com

Posted by 4 Oct, 2012

TweetEnvironmental Applications Keeping the water in our lakes, rivers, and streams clean requires monitoring of water quality at many points as it gradually makes its way from its source to our oceans. Over the years ever-increasing environmental concerns and regulations have heightened the need for increased diligence and tighter restrictions on wastewater quality. Control of […]

Environmental Applications
Keeping the water in our lakes, rivers, and streams clean requires monitoring of water quality at many points as it gradually makes its way from its source to our oceans. Over the years ever-increasing environmental concerns and regulations have heightened the need for increased diligence and tighter restrictions on wastewater quality. Control of water pollution was once concerned mainly with treating wastewater before it was discharged from a manufacturing facility into the nation’s waterways. Today, in many cases, there are restrictions on wastewater that is discharged to city sewer systems or to other publicly owned treatment facilities. Many jurisdictions even restrict or regulate the runoff of storm water — affecting not only industrial and commercial land, but also residential properties as well.

In its simplest form, water pollution management requires impoundment of storm water runoff for a specified period of time before being discharged. Normally, a few simple tests such as pH and suspended solids must be checked to verify compliance before release. If water is used in any way prior to discharge, then the monitoring requirements can expand significantly. For example, if the water is used for once-through cooling, testing may include temperature, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), to name a few.

Once water is used in a process, some form of treatment is often required before it can be discharged to a public waterway. If wastewater is discharged to a city sewer or publicly owned facility, and treatment is required, the quality is often measured and the cost is based not only on the quantity discharged, but also the amount of treatment required. As a minimum requirement suspended solids must be removed. Filtering or using clarifiers often accomplishes such removal. Monitoring consists of measuring total suspended solids (TSS) or turbidity.

If inorganic materials have been introduced into the water, their concentration must be reduced to an acceptable level. Inorganics, such as heavy metals, typically are removed by raising the pH to form insoluble metal oxides or metal hydroxides. The precipitated contaminants are filtered or settled out. Afterward, the pH must be adjusted back into a “normal” range, which often requires continuous monitoring of pH.

Organic materials by far require the most extensive treatment. Many different methods have been devised to convert soluble organic compounds into insoluble inorganic matter. Most of these involve some form of biological oxidation treatment. Bacteria are used to metabolize the organic materials into carbon dioxide and solids, which can be easily removed. To insure that these processes work smoothly and efficiently requires regular monitoring of the health of the biological organisms. The level of food (organic material), nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous), dissolved oxygen, and pH are some of the parameters that must be controlled. After bio-oxidation the wastewater is filtered or clarified. Often the final effluent is treated with an oxidizing compound such as chlorine to kill any remaining bacterial agents, but any excess oxidant normally must be removed prior to discharge. Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP)/Redox is ideal for monitoring the level of oxidants before and after removal. The final effluent stream must be monitored to make sure it meets all regulatory requirements.

The monitoring of wastewater pollution does not end there. Scientists are continuously testing water in streams, ground water, lakes, lagoons, and other bodies of water to determine if and what effects any remaining contamination is having on the receiving waters and its associated aquatic life. Measurements may include pH, conductivity, TDS, temperature, dissolved oxygen, TSS and organic levels (COD and BOD).

Environmental testing is not limited to monitoring of wastewater systems. Control of air emissions often includes gas-cleaning systems that involve the use of water. Wet scrubbers and wet electrostatic precipitators are included in this group. A flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system is one type of wet scrubber that uses slurry of lime, limestone, or other caustic material to react with sulfur compounds in the flue gas. The key to reliable operation of these units is proper monitoring of solids levels and pH. After use, the water in these systems must be treated or added to other wastewater from the plant, where it is treated by one of the methods previously discussed.
With proper monitoring, systems that maintain cleaner air and water can be operated efficiently and effectively. Such operation will go a long way toward maintaining a cleaner environment for future generations.

Myron L Meters offers a full line of handheld instruments and in-line monitor/controllers that can be used to measure or monitor many of the parameters previously mentioned. The following table lists some of the model numbers for measuring, monitoring, or controlling pH, conductivity, TDS and ORP. For additional information, please refer to our data sheets or Ask An Expert at MyronLMeters.com.

Note: When using a monitor/controller to measure pH in streams that contain heavy metals, sulfides, or other materials that react with silver, Myron L Meters recommends using a double junction pH sensor with a potassium nitrate (KNO3) reference gel to avoid fouling the silver electrode. See our 720II Sensor Selection Guide for pH and ORP Monitor/controllers for more information.
Recommended handheld:

Ultrameter II 6P

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.myronlmeters.com/Ultrameter-II-6P-Multiparameter-Meter-p/dh-umii-6pii.htm

Multi-Parameter: Conductivity, TDS, Resistivity, pH, ORP, Temperature, Free Chlorine (FCE)
+/-1% Accuracy of Reading
Memory Storage: Save up to 100 samples w/ Date & Time stamp
Wireless Download Module Optional
Waterproof

 

Categories : Case Studies & Application Stories, Science and Industry Updates

Buying and Using a pH Meter for Food Processing – MyronLMeters.com

Posted by 2 Oct, 2012

TweetWhat is pH and why do I need to measure it? pH measures the amount of acidity or alkalinity in a food or solution using a numerical scale between  1 and 14. A pH value of 1 is most acidic, a pH value of 7 is neutral, and values above 7 are referred to as […]

What is pH and why do I need to measure it?

pH measures the amount of acidity or alkalinity in a food or solution using a numerical scale between  1 and 14. A pH value of 1 is most acidic, a pH value of 7 is neutral, and values above 7 are referred to as basic or alkaline. Acidified foods have a pH value less than or equal to 4.6. The proper pH of a canned food product can be critical to ensuring the safety of the product. It is very important that pH testing be done correctly and accurately.

How is pH measured?

If you process acidified foods, you will be required to monitor the pH of the product that you produce. Depending on the pH of the product, you may be able to use paper pH strips (often referred to as litmus paper), or required to use a pH meter. Paper strips that measure pH rely on a color change in the paper to indicate product pH. Paper strips can be used to measure pH if the product pH is less than 4.0. Paper strips are an inexpensive way to test pH, but can be inaccurate or difficult to read. A pH meter measures the amount of hydrogen-ion (acid) in solution using a glass electrode immersed in the solution. A pH meter must be used when product pH is greater than, or equal to, 4.0. If you are canning acidified foods, accurately monitoring and recording the product pH is key to knowing that you are selling a safe product.

What is equilibrium pH?

Equilibrium pH is the pH of a food product after the added acid has reached throughout the food; the pH of the acid brine and the food that have equilibrated.  When you monitor pH as part of process monitoring, it is the equilibrium pH that you are measuring. For a proper pH reading, you should test the pH of the product roughly 24 hours after processing, once the jars have cooled to room temperature and stabilized. Do not take the pH of a product just before or right after canning because it will not be an accurate measure of the equilibrium pH.

What should I look for if I need to purchase a pH meter?

If you are required to check your product pH with a meter, there are several things to consider.

Accuracy. Accuracy is listed as a range of +0.XX pH units. This means that the meter may read so many pH units above or below the actual pH of the product. Purchase a pH meter with an accuracy of +0.02 units or better. For instance, a pH meter with an accuracy of

+0.01 is a good choice. A pH meter with an accuracy of +0.10 is not a good choice, it is not accurate enough for all products.

Calibration.

All pH meters must be calibrated (checked against a known standard) to assure accuracy. Standards are colored liquids of known pH. Buy a meter that uses at least a 2-point calibration; for acidified foods you will calibrate your meter with pH 4.0 and 7.0 buffers.

Electrode. The electrode is the part of the instrument that is immersed in solution. When considering which pH meter to purchase, consider the cost of replacement electrodes. Some  electrodes  have  special  non-clog  tips  and  these  may  be  useful  is  you  will  be measuring the pH of foods that are not easily blended.

Temperature. pH readings are affected by temperature. In order to get an accurate reading, the pH meter must be calibrated at the same temperature as the samples being tested. More expensive meters will compensate for variations in sample temperature (too warm or too cold). Myron L meters have automatic temperature compensation. If you can afford a meter with this feature, it’s nice to have.

What should I buy?

The cost of a pH meter ranges from under $100 to well over $500.  As a starting point, there are several styles that small food and beverage processors currently use.

Testing the Equilibrium pH of an Acidified Food Product

1.   Open one jar and take a representative sample of your food product once it has cooled, usually 12 to 24 hours after processing. You should sample each batch. Heating will drive the acid into your food product; sampling after processing (and cooling) will give you an accurate reading of the equilibrium pH.

2.   Strain the solids, draining out the liquid (brine) from the jar. Place the strained solids into a blender.

3.   Blend the product, adding distilled water if necessary, to produce a slurry. Added distilled water will not change the pH of the product and will allow for effective blending. You can purchase distilled water at many grocery stores or drug stores.

4.   Use a calibrated pH meter to measure pH.

The pH meter must be calibrated using at least 2-point calibration with pH 4.0 and 7.0 buffers. Myron L Meters recommends a three point calibration.

The pH meter must be calibrated each day that you use it. A pH meter must be used to monitor the pH of foods with an equilibrium pH greater than 4.0.

5.   Record the results in your batch log.

*Myron L meters are used by Tyson, Sara Lee, Gordon Food Service, Better Baked Foods, Schreiber Foods, Homestead Slow Foods, and others in the food

processing industry.

These are our two most popular handheld pH meters:

Ultrapen PT2

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.myronlmeters.com/Ultrapen-PT2-Multiparameter-Meter-p/dh-up-pt2-ss.htm

ULTRAPEN PT2 pH and Temperature Pen

Accuracy of +/- 0.01 pH

Reliable Repeatable Results

Easy Calibration

Automatic Temperature Compensation

Measures Temperature

Durable, Fully Potted Circuitry

Waterproof

Comes with 2oz bottle of pH Storage Solution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ultrameter II – 6PII

http://www.myronlmeters.com/Ultrameter-II-6P-Multiparameter-Meter-p/dh-umii-6pii.htm

Multi-Parameter: Conductivity, TDS, Resistivity, pH, ORP, Temperature, Free Chlorine (FCE)

+/-1% Accuracy of Reading

Memory Storage: Save up to 100 samples w/ Date & Time stamp

Wireless Download Module Optional

Waterproof

 

Categories : Application Advice, Case Studies & Application Stories, Technical Tips

pH and pH Meters – MyronLMeters.com

Posted by 24 Sep, 2012

TweetWhat is pH? pH measures the activity of the (solvated) hydrogen ion. Pure water has a pH very close to 7 at 25°C. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline. The pH scale is traceable to a set of standard solutions […]

What is pH?

pH measures the activity of the (solvated) hydrogen ion. Pure water has a pH very close to 7 at 25°C. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline. The pH scale is traceable to a set of standard solutions whose pH is established by international agreement. Measuring pH for aqueous solutions can be done with a glass electrode and a pH meter, or using indicators.

Measuring pH is important in water treatment, medicine, biology, chemistry, agriculture, forestry, food science, environmental science, oceanography, civil engineering, chemical engineering, and many other applications.

p[H] was first introduced by Danish chemist Søren Peder Lauritz Sørensen at the Carlsberg Laboratory in 1909 and revised to the modern pH in 1924 to accommodate definitions and measurements in terms of electrochemical cells.  According to the Carlsberg Foundation pH stands for “power of hydrogen”.

pH is defined as the decimal logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion activity, aH+, in a solution.

pH Meters

A pH meter is an electronic device used for measuring the pH (acidity or alkalinity) of a liquid (though special probes are sometimes used to measure the pH of semi-solid substances). A typical pH meter consists of a special measuring probe (a glass electrode) connected to an electronic meter that measures and displays the pH reading.

The probe

The pH probe measures pH as the activity of the hydrogen cations surrounding a thin-walled glass bulb at its tip. The probe produces a small voltage (about 0.06 volt per pH unit) that is measured and displayed as pH units by the meter. For more information about pH probe care or replacement, please consult your Myron L meter operations manual.

Calibration and use

*Please consult your Myron L meter operations manual before calibrating.

For very precise work the pH meter should be calibrated before each measurement. For normal use calibration should be performed at the beginning of each day. The reason for this is that the glass electrode does not give a reproducible e.m.f. over longer periods of time. Calibration should be performed with at least two standard buffer solutions that span the range of pH values to be measured. For general purposes buffers at pH 4 and pH 10 are acceptable. The pH meter has one control (calibrate) to set the meter reading equal to the value of the first standard buffer and a second control (slope) which is used to adjust the meter reading to the value of the second buffer. A third control allows the temperature to be set. Standard buffer solutions, which can be obtained from MyronLMeters.com here:

http://www.myronlmeters.com/pH-Buffer-Calibration-Solutions-s/82.htm

usually state how the buffer value changes with temperature. For more precise measurements, a three buffer solution calibration is preferred. As pH 7 is essentially, a “zero point” calibration (akin to zeroing a scale), calibrating at pH 7 first, calibrating at the pH closest to the point of interest ( e.g. either 4 or 10) second and checking the third point will provide a more linear accuracy to what is essentially a non-linear problem. Some meters will allow a three point calibration and that is the preferred scheme for the most accurate work, and is recommended by Myron L Meters. Higher quality meters will have a provision to account for temperature coefficient correction, and high-end pH probes have temperature probes built in. The calibration process correlates the voltage produced by the probe (approximately 0.06 volts per pH unit) with the pH scale. After each single measurement, the probe is rinsed with distilled water or deionized water to remove any traces of the solution being measured, blotted with a scientific wipe to absorb any remaining water which could dilute the sample and thus alter the reading, and then quickly immersed in another solution.

Storage conditions of the glass probes

When not in use, the glass probe tip must be kept wet at all times to avoid the pH sensing membrane dehydration and the subsequent dysfunction of the electrode. You can get your sensor storage solution here:

http://www.myronlmeters.com/pH-Storage-Solution-p/s-ssq.htm

A glass electrode alone (i.e., without combined reference electrode) is typically stored immersed in an acidic solution of around pH 3.0. In an emergency, acidified tap water can be used, but distilled or deionised water must never be used for longer-term probe storage as the relatively ionless water “sucks” ions out of the probe membrane through diffusion, which degrades it.

Combined electrodes (glass membrane + reference electrode) are better stored immersed in the bridge electrolyte (often KCl  3 M) to avoid the diffusion of the electrolyte (KCl) out of the liquid junction.

Cleaning and troubleshooting of the glass probes

Occasionally (about once a month), the probe may be cleaned using pH-electrode cleaning solution; generally a 0.1 M solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl) is used, having a pH of one.

In case of strong degradation of the glass membrane performance due to membrane poisoning, diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF < 2 %) can be used to quickly etch (< 1 minute) a thin damaged film of glass. Alternatively a dilute solution of ammonium fluoride (NH4F) can be used. To avoid unexpected problems, the best practice is however to always refer to the electrode manufacturer recommendations or to a classical textbook of analytical chemistry.

Types of pH meters

A pH meter for every industry

pH meters range from simple and inexpensive pen-like devices to complex and expensive laboratory instruments with computer interfaces and several inputs for indicator and temperature measurements to be entered to adjust for the slight variation in pH caused by temperature. Specialty meters and probes are available for use in special applications, harsh environments, etc. Myron L Meters offers a simple pen-style pH meter, analog handheld meters, digital handheld multiparameter meters, and inline monitor/controllers.

Myron L Ultrapen PT2 pH and Temperature Tester

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.myronlmeters.com/Ultrapen-PT2-Multiparameter-Meter-p/dh-up-pt2-ss.htm

ULTRAPEN PT2 pH and Temperature Pen

Accuracy of +/- 0.01 pH

Reliable Repeatable Results

Easy Calibration

Automatic Temperature Compensation

Measures Temperature

Durable, Fully Potted Circuitry

Waterproof

Comes with 2oz bottle of pH Storage Solution

 

 

Myron L AG-6 TDS and pH meter

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.myronlmeters.com/Analog-pH-Conductivity-Meter-p/ah-ds-ag6-fslash-ph.htm

 

Agri-Meter – Ag-6: 0-5 millimhos; 2-12 pH

Instant and accurate TDS tests

Electronic Internal Standard for easy field calibration

Fast Auto Temperature Compensation

Rugged design for years of trouble-free testing

Simple to use

 

Myron L Ultrameter II 6P multiparameter meter

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.myronlmeters.com/Ultrameter-II-6P-Multiparameter-Meter-p/dh-umii-6pii.htm

 

 

Multi-Parameter: Conductivity, TDS, Resistivity, pH, ORP, Temperature, Free Chlorine (FCE)

+/-1% Accuracy of Reading

Memory Storage: Save up to 100 samples w/ Date & Time stamp

Wireless Download Module Optional

Waterproof

 

Myron L 723II digital inline pH monitor/controller

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.myronlmeters.com/Inline-pH-Digital-Monitor-Controller-p/i-dmc-723ii.htm

 

The advanced “isolated” circuitry of the 720 Series II pH/ORP Monitor/ controllers guarantees accurate and reliable measurements — completely eliminating ground-loop and noise issues.

 

The unique sensor preamp allows for longer distances between the sensor and the Monitor/controller without the loss of accuracy or reliability.

 

All Myron L Monitor/controllers feature a highly refined and precise Temperature Compensation circuit. This feature perfectly matches the NERNST equation correcting the displayed reading to 25′C. The TC may be disabled to conform to USP requirements.

 

 

Categories : Product Updates, Science and Industry Updates