Pool Maintenance with the Myron L PoolPro

Posted by 4 Dec, 2014

TweetAnyone and everyone who is responsible for operating and maintaining a swimming pool or spa has to test, monitor, and control complex, interdependent chemical factors that affect the quality of water bathers are immersed in. Additionally, aquatic facilities operators must be familiar with all laws, regulations, and guidelines governing what these parameters should be. Why? […]

Anyone and everyone who is responsible for operating and maintaining a swimming pool or spa has to test, monitor, and control complex, interdependent chemical factors that affect the quality of water bathers are immersed in. Additionally, aquatic facilities operators must be familiar with all laws, regulations, and guidelines governing what these parameters should be.

Why? Because the worst breeding ground for any kind of microorganism is a warm (enough) stagnant pool of water. People plus stagnant water equals morbid illness. That’s why pools have to be circulated, filtered, and sanitized – with any number of chemicals or methods, but most frequently with chlorine compounds. However, adding chemicals that kill the bad microorganisms can also make the water uncomfortable, and in some cases unsafe, for swimmers. Additionally, if all the chemical factors of the water are not controlled, the very structures and equipment that hold the water and keep it clean are ruined.

So the pool professional must perform a delicate balancing act with all the factors that affect both the health and comfort of bathers and the equipment and structures that support this. Both water balance – or mineral saturation control – and sanitizer levels must constantly be maintained. This is achieved by measuring pertinent water quality factors and adding chemicals or water to keep the factors within acceptable parameters.

WATER BALANCE

Water is constantly changing. Anything and everything directly and indirectly affects the relationship of its chemical parameters to each other: sunlight, wind, rain, oil, dirt, cosmetics, other bodily wastes, and any chemicals you add to it. Balanced water not only keeps swimmers comfortable, but also protects the pool shell, plumbing, and all other related equipment from damage by etching or build-up and stains.

The pool professional is already well acquainted with pH, Total Alkalinity (TA), and Calcium Hardness (CH); along with Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Temperature, these are the factors that influence water balance. Water that is in balance is neither aggressive nor oversaturated.

Aggressive water lacks sufficient calcium to saturate the water, so it is hungry for more. It will eat anything it comes into contact with to fill its need, including the walls of your pool or spa or the equipment it touches. Over-saturated water cannot hold any more minerals, so dissolved minerals come out of solution and form scale on pool and equipment surfaces.

The pH of pool water is critical to the effectiveness of the sanitizer as well as the water balance. pH is determined by the concentration of Hydrogen ions in a specific volume of water. It is measured on a scale of 0-14, 0-7 being acidic and 7-14 being basic.

You must maintain the pH of the water at a level that assures the sanitizer works effectively and at the same time protects the pool shell and equipment from corrosion or scaling and the bathers from discomfort or irritation. If the pH is too high, the water is out of balance, and the sanitizer’s ability to work decreases. More and more sanitizer is then needed to maintain the proper level to kill off germs. Additionally, pH profoundly affects what and how much chemical must be added to control the balance. A pH of between *7.2 – 7.6 is desirable in most cases.

*As one of the most important pool water balance and sanitation factors, pH should be checked hourly in most commercial pools. Even if you have an automatic chemical monitor/controller on your system, you need to double-check its readings with an independent pH test. With saltwater pools, pH level goes up fast, so you need to check it more often. Tests are available that require reagents and subjective evaluation of color depth and hue to judge their pH. But different users interpret these tests differently, and results can vary wildly.

Myron L’s POOLPRO™ gives instant lab-accurate, precise, easy-to-use, objective pH measurements, invaluable in correctly determining what and how much chemical to add to maintain water balance and effective sanitizer residuals.

Total Alkalinity (TA) is the sum of all the alkaline minerals in the water, primarily in bicarbonate form in swimming pools, but also as sodium, calcium, magnesium, and potassium carbonates and hydroxides, and affects pH directly through buffering. The greater the Total Alkalinity, the more stable the pH. *In general, TA should be maintained at 80 – 120 parts per million (ppm) for concrete pools to keep the pH stable. Maintaining a low TA not only causes pH bounce, but also corrosion and staining of pool walls and eye irritation. Maintaining a high TA causes over-stabilization of the water, creating high acid demands, formation of bicarbonate scale, and may result in the formation of white carbonate particles (suspended solids), which clouds the water. Reducing TA requires huge amounts of effort. So the best solution to TA problems is prevention through close monitoring and controlling. Myron L’s Alkalinity Test Kit comes with sodium hydrogen sulphate tablets and a mixing/measuring vial to determine alkalinity in parts per million.

The other water balance parameter pool professionals are most familiar with is Calcium Hardness (CH). CH is the calcium content of the water and is measured in parts per million. Low CH combined with a low pH and low TA significantly increases corrosivity of water. As the water becomes more aggressive, the solubility of calcium carbonate also increases. This means that plaster and marcite pool finishes will deteriorate quickly because calcium carbonate is a major component of both plaster and marcite. Low CH also leads to corrosion of metal components in the pool plant, particularly in heat exchangers. Calcium carbonate usually provides a protective film on the surface of copper heat exchangers and heat sinks. This thin layer prevents much water-to-metal interaction but does not adversely affect the heating process. Without this protective layer caused by low CH, heat exchangers and associated parts can be destroyed prematurely. Strangely enough, as water temperature increases, solubility of calcium carbonate decreases. *The recommended range for most pools is 200 – 400 ppm. Calcium hardness should be tested at least monthly and has the least significant effect on the water balance when compared to pH and TA.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is the sum of all solids dissolved in water. If all the water in a swimming pool was allowed to evaporate, TDS would be what was left on the bottom of the pool – like the white deposits left in a boiling pot after all the water has evaporated. Some of this dissolved material includes hardness, alkalinity, cyanuric acid, chlorides, bromides, and algaecides. TDS also includes bather wastes, such as perspiration, urine, and others.

TDS is often confused with Total Suspended Solids (TSS). But TDS has no bearing on the turbidity, or cloudiness, of the water, as all the solids are truly in solution. It is TSS, or undissolved, suspended solids, present in or that precipitate out of the water that make the water cloudy.

High TDS levels do affect chlorine efficiency, algae growth, and aggressive water, but only minimally. TDS levels have the greatest bearing on bather comfort and water taste – a critical concern for commercial pool operators. At levels of over 5,000ppm, people can taste it. At over 10,000ppm bather towels are scratchy and mineral salts accumulate around the pool and equipment. Still some seawater pools comfortably operate with TDS levels of 32,000ppm or more.

As methods of sanitization have changed, high TDS levels have become more and more of a problem. *The best course of action is to monitor and control TDS by measuring levels and periodically draining and replacing some of your mature water with new, lower TDS tap water. This is a better option than waiting until you must drain and refill your pool, which is not allowed in some areas where water conservation is required by law. However, you can also decrease TDS with desalinization equipment as long as you compensate with Calcium Hardness. (Do not adjust water balance by moving pH beyond 7.8.)

Regardless, you do need to measure and compensate for TDS to get the most precise saturation index and adjust your pH and Calcium Hardness levels accordingly. *It is generally recommended that you adjust for TDS levels by subtracting one tenth of a saturation index unit (.1) for every 1,000ppm TDS over 1,000 to keep your water properly balanced. When TDS levels exceed 5,000ppm, it is recommended that you subtract half of a tenth, or one twentieth of unit (.05) per 1,000ppm. And as the TDS approaches that of seawater, the effect is negligible.

Hot tubs and spas have a more significant problem with TDS levels than pools. Because the swimmer load is relatively higher, more chemicals are added for super-chlorination and sudsing along with a higher concentration of bather wastes. The increased electrical conductance that high TDS water promotes can also result in electrolysis or galvanic corrosion. Every hot water pool operator should consider a TDS analyzer as a standard piece of equipment.

A TDS analyzer is required to balance the water of any pool or spa in the most precise way. Myron L’s POOLPRO and POOLMETER™ immediately display TDS levels to correctly calculate your water’s saturation index and to ensure you take corrective action before TDS gets out of hand.

Temperature is the last and least significant factor in maintaining water balance. As temperature increases, the water balance tends to become more basic and scale producing. Calcium carbonate becomes less soluble, causing it to precipitate out of solution. As temperature drops, water becomes more corrosive.

In addition to helping determine water balance, temperature also affects bather comfort, evaporation, chlorination, and algae growth (warmer temperatures encourage growth). Myron L’s POOLPRO also precisely measures temperature to one tenth of a degree at the same time any other parameter is measured.

The formula for determining water balance is called the Langlier Index, or Saturation Index. It is determined by the following formula:

SI= (pH + TF + CF + AF ) – 12.1

Where TF is the temperature, CF is Calcium Hardness, and AF is Total Alkalinity adjusted for temperature. 12.1 is the Total Dissolved Solids constant. Consult appropriate conversion charts to obtain the correct values for each variable.

– An index between -0.5 and +0.5 is acceptable pool water.
– An index of more than +0.5 is scale-forming.
– An index below -0.5 is corrosive.

pH, Total Alkalinity, and Calcium Hardness are the big three contributors to water balance. *Pool water will often be balanced if these factors are kept within the recommended ranges.

SANITATION

The most immediate concern of anyone monitoring and maintaining a pool is the effectiveness of the sanitizer – the germ-killer. There are many types of sanitizers, the most common being chlorine in swimming pools and bromine in hot tubs and spas. The effectiveness of the sanitizer is directly related to the pH and, to a lesser degree, the other factors influencing water balance.

To have true chemical control, you need to monitor both the sanitizer residual and the pH and use that information to chemically treat the water – that’s where ORP comes in. ORP indicates the ability of oxidizers to burn up organic matter in the water, which means your water is clean and sanitary. There are colorimetric tests used to determine the amount of effective sanitizer for chlorine and other elements, but none is as objective and precise in determining the total killing power of all sanitizers as ORP.

ORP stands for Oxidation Reduction Potential (or REDOX) of the water and is measured in millivolts (mV). The higher the ORP, the greater the killing power of all sanitizers, not just free chlorine, in the water. ORP is the only practical method available to monitor sanitizer effectiveness. Thus, every true system of automatic chemical control depends on ORP to work.

The required ORP for disinfection will vary slightly between disinfecting systems and is also dependent on the basic water supply potential, which must be assessed and taken into account when the control system is initialized. *650mV to 700 – 750mV is generally considered appropriate.

Electronic controllers can be inaccurate and inconsistent when confronted with certain unique water qualities, so it is critical to perform manual testing with separate instrumentation. *For automatic control dosing, it is generally recommended that you manually test pH and ORP prior to opening and then once during the day to confirm automatic readings.

*Samples for confirming automatic control dosing should be taken from a sample tap strategically located on the return line as close as possible to the probes in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. If manual and automatic readings consistently move further apart or closer together, you should investigate the reason for the difference.

ORP readings can only be obtained with an electronic instrument. Myron L’s POOLPRO provides the fastest, most precise, easy-to-use method of obtaining ORP readings to check the effectiveness of the sanitizer in any pool or spa. This is the best way to determine how safe your water is at any given moment.

SALTWATER SANITATION

A relatively new development, saltwater pools use regular salt, sodium chloride, to form chlorine with an electrical current much in the same way liquid bleach is made. As chlorine – the sanitizer – is made from the salt in the water, it is critical to maintain the salt concentration at the appropriate levels to produce an adequate level of sanitizer. It is even more important to test water parameters frequently in these types of pools and a spa, as saltwater does not have the ability to respond adequately to shock loadings (super-chlorination treatments).

Most saltwater chlorinators require a *2,500 – 3,000ppm salt concentration in the water (though some may require as high as 5,000-7,000ppm). This can barely be tasted, but provides enough salt for the system to produce the chlorine needed to sanitize the water.

(It is important to have a good stabilizer level – *30 – 50 ppm – in the pool, or the sunlight will burn up the chlorine. Without it, the saltwater system may not be able to keep up with the demand regardless of salt concentration.)

Taste and salt shortages are of little concern to seawater systems that maintain an average of 32,000ppm. In these high-salt environments, you need to beware of corrosion to system components that can distort salt level and other parameter readings.

Additionally, incorrect salt concentration readings can occur in any saltwater system. The monitoring/controlling components can and do fail or become scaled — sometimes giving a false low salt reading. Thus, you must test manually for salt concentration with separate instrumentation before adding salt.

You must also test salt concentration manually with separate instrumentation to re-calibrate your system. This is critical to system functioning and production of required chlorine. Myron L’s POOLPRO conveniently tests for salt concentration at the press of the button as a check against automatic controller systems that may have disabled equipment or need to be re-calibrated.

As you can see, there are many factors affecting the comfort and sanitation of pool and spa water and the functioning of the equipment and structures that hold it, and no one instrument or method can be used to determine ALL of them, but Myron L’s POOLPRO gives you the most precise and comprehensive water testing instrument in one easy-to-use, handheld waterproof unit. Where precision counts, we’ve got you covered.

RECORD KEEPING – What to do with all those measurements …

Now that you have the data, you have to correctly transcribe, evaluate, and report it to the proper government agencies, or at least archive it as permanent record of proper compliance to whatever regulations apply to your pool or spa. (As if sanitizing and balancing the chemistry of the water wasn’t enough.)

*It is recommended (by the World Health Organization and other entities) that data handling be done objectively and that data be recorded in a common format and in the most accurate way. Also, data should be stored in more than one permanent location and made available for future analysis. *Most municipalities require commercial aquatic facilities to keep permanent records onsite and available for inspection at any time.

*Myron L’s POOLPRO makes it easy to comply with data record requirements. The POOLPRO is an objective means to test ORP, pH, TDS, temperature and the mineral/salt content of any pool or spa. You just rinse and fill the cell cup by submerging the waterproof unit and press the button of the parameter you wish to measure. You immediately get a standard, numerical digital readout – no interpretation required – eliminating all subjectivity. Up to 100 date-time-stamped readings can be stored in memory and then later transferred directly to a computer using our BluDock™ accessory package. You just set the unit on the Bludock and download the data to the computer. The user never touches or tampers with the data, reducing the potential for human error in transcription. The data can then be imported into any program necessary for record-keeping and analysis. *The Bludock is the fastest, easiest, best way to keep records that comply with governing standards.

Myron L Company’s POOLPRO is SIMPLY the best.

*Consult your governing bodies for specific testing, chemical concentrations, and all other guidelines and requirements. The ranges suggested here are meant as general examples.
Myron L Company assumes no responsibility for lack of compliance to specific regulations governing the testing and control of parameters in your pool and/or spa.

Categories : Application Advice, Case Studies & Application Stories, Product Updates, Science and Industry Updates, Technical Tips

Water Quality Parameters: MyronLMeters.com

Posted by 15 Apr, 2014

TweetWater Quality Parameters Measuring Key Water Quality Parameters The right meter is essential for measuring any of several key water quality parameters: Conductivity is the ability of water to conduct an electrical current and is an indirect measure of the conductive ionic mineral concentration. The more conductive ions that are present, the more electricity can be […]

Water Quality Parameters

Measuring Key Water Quality Parameters

The right meter is essential for measuring any of several key water quality parameters:

Conductivity is the ability of water to conduct an electrical current and is an indirect measure of the conductive ionic mineral concentration. The more conductive ions that are present, the more electricity can be conducted by the water. This measurement is expressed in microsiemens per centimeter (µS/cm) at 25º Celsius. Myron L Meters carries a complete line of conductivity meters, including the Ultrameter II 4P.

Resistivity is the inverse of conductivity. Electrical conductivity is a measure of water’s resistance to an electric current. Water itself has a weak electrical conductivity. Electric current is transported in water by dissolved ions, making conductivity measurement a quick and reliable way to monitor the total amount of ionic contaminants in water. Myron L Meters carries a complete line of resistivity meters, including inline monitor/controllers like the 753II Resistivity Digital Monitor/Controller. Read more about Measuring Key Water Quality Parameters

The Ultrameter III 9P is the most comprehensive water meter on the market, measuring 9 parameters with a single instrument: Conductivity, Resistivity, TDS, Alkalinity, Hardness, Langelier Saturation Index,
ORP/Free Chlorine, pH, Temperature. Three parameters – LSI, hardness, and alkalinity require titration. Find out more about the Ultrameter III 9P

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Water Quality Parameters: MyronLMeters.com was originally published on Myron L Meters Blog

Categories : Uncategorized

Measuring Key Water Quality Parameters: MyronLMeters.com

Posted by 12 Apr, 2014

TweetThe right meter is essential for measuring any of several key water quality parameters:Conductivity is the ability of water to conduct an electrical current and is an indirect measure of the conductive ionic mineral concentration. The more conductive ions that are present, the more electricity can be conducted by the water. This measurement is expressed […]

The right meter is essential for measuring any of several key water quality parameters:

Conductivity is the ability of water to conduct an electrical current and is an indirect measure of the conductive ionic mineral concentration. The more conductive ions that are present, the more electricity can be conducted by the water. This measurement is expressed in microsiemens per centimeter (µS/cm) at 25º Celsius. Myron L Meters carries a complete line of conductivity meters, including the Ultrameter II 4P.

Resistivity is the inverse of conductivity. Electrical conductivity is a measure of water’s resistance to an electric current. Water itself has a weak electrical conductivity. Electric current is transported in water by dissolved ions, making conductivity measurement a quick and reliable way to monitor the total amount of ionic contaminants in water. Myron L Meters carries a complete line of resistivity meters, including inline monitor/controllers like the 753II Resistivity Digital Monitor/Controller.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is also a measurement of the amount of dissolved minerals in the water. In this instance they would be called solids in solution. The quantity of dissolved solids in the solution is directly proportional to the conductivity. In this case, conductivity is the measurement but it is used to estimate TDS. It is measured with a conductivity meter but is reported as TDS in parts per million (ppm), via a complex algorithm. Myron L Meters carries a complete line of TDS meters, including the Ultrapen PT1.

pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in the water, indicating the acidity or alkalinity of the water. On the pH scale of 0-14, a reading of 7 is considered to be neutral. Readings below 7 indicate acidic conditions, while readings above 7 indicate the water is alkaline or basic. Naturally occurring fresh waters have a pH range between 6 and 8. Myron L Meters carries a complete line of pH meters, including the Ultrapen PT2

Temperature is expressed in degrees Celsius (C) or Fahrenheit (F). Most digital handheld Myron L Meters include a temperature function.



Oxidation reduction potential (ORP)can correlate millivolt readings to the sanitization strength of the water. Microbes can cause corrosion, fouling, and disease, and oxidizing biocides are usually used to keep microbial levels under control. ORP is expressed in millivolts (mV). Myron L Meters carries a complete line of ORP meters, including the Ultrapen PT3

Free Chlorine refers to both hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and the hypochlorite (OCl–) ion or bleach, and is commonly added to water systems for disinfection. Free chlorine is typically measured in drinking water disinfection systems to find whether the water system contains enough disinfectant.  Myron L Meters Ultrameter II 6PFCe and Ultrapen PT4 can both be used to measure free chlorine.

Salinity is simply a measure of the amount of salts dissolved in water, a measurement useful to pool service technicians and others.  You can measure salinity with a Myron L Pool Pro PS6.

Alkalinity is a measure of the capacity of water or any solution to neutralize or “buffer” acids. This measure of acid-neutralizing capacity is important in figuring out how “buffered” the water is against sudden changes in pH. Alkalinity is a titration function of the Ultrameter III 9PTKA.

Hardness is caused by compounds of calcium and magnesium, and by a variety of other metals.  As water moves through soil and rock, it dissolves very small amounts of minerals and holds them in solution. Calcium and magnesium dissolved in water are the two most common minerals that make water “hard.” Hardness is a titration function of the Ultrameter III 9PTKA.

LSI or Langelier Saturation Index helps you determine the scaling potential of water. LSI is a calculated number used to predict the calcium carbonate stability of water. It indicates whether the water will precipitate, dissolve, or be in equilibrium with calcium carbonate. LSI is a titration function of the Ultrameter III 9PTKA.

MyronLMeters.com is the premier internet retailer of accurate, reliable Myron L meters.  Save 10% when you order Myron L meters online at MyronLMeters.com. You’ll find reliable instruments for every water quality parameter mentioned above.



 

 

 

Categories : Uncategorized

Ultrapen PT2 Product Review – Myron L Meters

Posted by 6 Apr, 2014

TweetUltrapen PT2 product review. Myron L Meters presents a review of the Ultrapen PT2 that measures pH. In this video, we cover the steps for measuring pH, changing the temperature setting, changing the pH measurement mode, and overall features.Order the Ultrapen PT2 here: http://www.myronlmeters.com/Myron-L-PT2-Ultrapen-Multiparameter-pH-temperature-p/dh-up-pt2-ss.htm

Ultrapen PT2 product review. Myron L Meters presents a review of the Ultrapen PT2 that measures pH. In this video, we cover the steps for measuring pH, changing the temperature setting, changing the pH measurement mode, and overall features.

Order the Ultrapen PT2 here: http://www.myronlmeters.com/Myron-L-PT2-Ultrapen-Multiparameter-pH-temperature-p/dh-up-pt2-ss.htm

Categories : Uncategorized

Ultrapen PT2 Product Review – Myron L Meters

Posted by 5 Apr, 2014

TweetUltrapen PT2 product review. Myron L Meters presents a review of the Ultrapen PT2 that measures pH. In this video, we cover the steps for measuring pH, changing the temperature setting, changing the pH measurement mode, and overall features. Order the Ultrapen PT2 here: http://www.myronlmeters.com/Myron-L-PT2-Ultrapen-Multiparameter-pH-temperature-p/dh-up-pt2-ss.htm


Ultrapen PT2 product review. Myron L Meters presents a review of the Ultrapen PT2 that measures pH. In this video, we cover the steps for measuring pH, changing the temperature setting, changing the pH measurement mode, and overall features.

Order the Ultrapen PT2 here: http://www.myronlmeters.com/Myron-L-PT2-Ultrapen-Multiparameter-pH-temperature-p/dh-up-pt2-ss.htm

Categories : Videos

Calibrating the Ultrapen PT2 pH Tester: MyronLMeters.com

Posted by 3 Apr, 2014

Tweet I.      Calibration The factory recommends calibrating the Ultrapen PT2 pH tester twice a month, depending on usage. However, you should check the calibration whenever measurements are not as expected. 3-point Wet Calibration is most accurate and is recommended. NOTE: If the measurement is NOT within calibration limits for any reason, “Error” will display. Check […]

I.      Calibration

The factory recommends calibrating the Ultrapen PT2 pH tester twice a month, depending on usage. However, you should check the calibration whenever measurements are not as expected. 3-point Wet Calibration is most accurate and is recommended.

NOTE: If the measurement is NOT within calibration limits for any reason, “Error” will display. Check to make sure you are using a proper pH buffer solution. If the solution is correct, clean the glass bulb of the sensor with a cotton swab soaked in isopropyl alcohol. Restart calibration.

NOTE: Small bubbles trapped in the sensor may give a false calibration. After calibration is completed, measure the pH buffer solutions again to verify correct calibration.

NOTE: If at any point during calibration, you do not submerge the sensor in solution

before the flashing slows, allow the pen to power off and start over.

A.    Calibration Preparation

  1. For maximum accuracy, fill 2 clean containers with each pH buffer. Arrange them in such a way that you can clearly remember which is the rinse solution and which is the calibration buffer. If you don’t have enough buffer, you can use 1 container of each buffer for calibration and 1 container of clean water for all rinsing. Always rinse the pH sensor between buffer solutions.

2.   Ensure the pH sensor is clean and free of debris.

B.    3-Point Calibration

Use pH 7, 4 and 10 buffers for 3-point calibration.

1. Thoroughly rinse the pen by submerging the sensor in pH 7 buffer rinse solution and swirling it around.

2. Push and release the push button to turn the unit on.
3. Push and hold the push button. The display will alternate between “CAL”, “FAC CAL”, “ºCºF TEMP”, “ModE SEL” and “ESC”.
4. Release the button when “CAL” displays. The display will indicate “CAL” and the LED will flash rapidly. 
5. While the LED flashes rapidly, dip the pen in pH 7 buffer calibration solution so that the sensor is completely submerged. 
6. While the LED flashes slowly, the pH calibration point will display along with “CAL”. Swirl the pen around to remove bubbles, keeping the sensor submerged.
7.   If the pH 7 calibration is successful, the display will indicate “SAVED”, then “PUSHCONT” will be displayed.

8.   Push and release the push button to continue. The LED will begin flash rapidly.Repeat steps 5 through 8 with pH 4 and 10 buffer calibration solutions.After the 3rd calibration point is successfully saved, the display will indicate “SAVED” and power off.Verify calibration by retesting the calibration solution.

C.    2-Point Calibration

Use pH 7 and 4 or 10 buffers for 2-point calibration.

  1. Thoroughly rinse the pen by submerging the sensor in pH 7 buffer rinse solution and swirling it around.
  2. Push and release the push button to turn the unit on.
  3. Push and hold the push button. The display will alternate between “CAL”, “FAC CAL”, “ºCºF TEMP”, “ModE SEL” and “ESC”.
  4. Release the button when “CAL” displays. The display will indicate “CAL” and the LED will flash rapidly.
  5. While the LED flashes rapidly, dip the pen in pH 7 buffer calibration solution so that the sensor is completely submerged.
  6. While the LED flashes slowly, the pH calibration point will display along with “CAL”. Swirl the pen around to remove bubbles, keeping the sensor submerged.
  7. If the pH 7 calibration is successful, the display will indicate “SAVEd”, then “PUSHCONT” will be displayed.
  8. Push and release the push button to continue. The LED will begin flashimg rapidly.

Repeat steps 5 through 7 with pH 4 or 10 buffer calibration solution.

Leave the pen in the same buffer solution until the unit powers off. The offset will be applied to the remaining calibration point.
Verify calibration by retesting the calibration solution.

 

D.    1-Point Calibration

Use pH 7, 4 or 10 buffer for 1-point calibration.

  1. Thoroughly rinse the pen by submerging the sensor in pH buffer rinse solution and swirling it around.
  2. Push and release the push button to turn the unit on.
  3. Push and hold the push button. The display will alternate between “CAL”, “FAC CAL”, “ºCºF TEMP”, “ModE SEL” and “ESC”.
  4. Release the button when “CAL” displays. The display will indicate “CAL” and the LED will flash rapidly.
  5. While the LED flashes rapidly, dip the pen in pH buffer calibration solution so that the sensor is completely submerged.
  6. While the LED flashes slowly, the pH calibration point will display along with “CAL”; swirl the pen around to remove bubbles, keeping the sensor submerged.

If the pH calibration is successful, the display will indicate “SAVEd”, then “PUSHCONT” will be displayed. “PUSHCONT” will not display if you calibrated 4 or 10.

Leave the pen in the same buffer solution until the unit powers off. The offset will be applied to the remaining calibration points.

Verify calibration by retesting the calibration solution.

E.    Factory Calibration

When pH buffers are not available, the PT2 can be returned to factory default calibration using the FAC CAL function. This will erase any stored wet calibration. NOTE: default factory calibration resets the electronics only and does NOT take the condition of the sensor into consideration.

To  return your unit to factory calibration:

  1. Push and release the push button.
  2. Push and hold the push button. The display will alternate between “CAL”, “FAC CAL”, “ºCºF TEMP”, “ModE SEL” and “ESC”.
  3. Release the button when “FAC CAL” displays. The display will alternate between “PUSHnHLD” and “FAC CAL”.
  4. Push and hold the push button. “SAVED FAC” displays indicating the pen has been reset to its factory calibration.

MyronLMeters.com is the premier internet retailer of the Ultrapen PT2 and other reliable Myron L meters. Save 10% on Myron L meters when you order online HERE.

Categories : Application Advice, Care and Maintenance, Product Updates, Technical Tips

Ultrapen PT2 pH Tester Measurement: MyronLMeters.com

Posted by 3 Apr, 2014

Tweet Measuring pH and Temperature with the Ultrapen PT2 NOTE: Selecting “ESC” from any menu immediately powers the unit off without saving changes. I. Temperature Unit Selection The PT2 allows you to select the type of units used for displaying temperature: ˚C (Degrees Celsius) or ˚F (Degrees Fahrenheit). To set the preference: 1. Push and […]

Capture

Measuring pH and Temperature with the Ultrapen PT2

NOTE: Selecting “ESC” from any menu immediately powers the unit off without saving changes.

I. Temperature Unit Selection

The PT2 allows you to select the type of units used for displaying temperature:
˚C (Degrees Celsius) or ˚F (Degrees Fahrenheit).

To set the preference:
1. Push and release the push button to turn the unit on.
2. Push and hold the button. The display will alternate between “CAL”, “FAC CAL”, “ºCºF TEMP”, “ModE SEL” and “ESC”.
3. Release the button while “ºCºF TEMP” is displayed. The display will alternate between “PUSHnHLD” and “ºCºF TEMP”.
4. Push and hold the button. The display will alternate between “˚C”, “˚F” and
“ESC”. Release the button when desired unit preference displays.
5. “SAVEd ºC” or “SAVEd ºF” will display; then the unit will power off.

II. pH Mode Selection

The PT2 allows you to select the pH measurement mode you prefer:
Hold (once stabilized, the readings are captured then displayed) or
LIVE (real-time readings are displayed continuously during measurement)
To set the pH measurement mode preference:
1. Push and release the push button to turn the unit on.
2. Push and hold the button. The display will alternate between “CAL”, “FAC CAL”, “ºCºF TEMP”, “Mode SEL” and “ESC”.
3. Release the button when “ModE SEL” is displayed. The display will alternate between “PUSHnHLD” and “Mode SEL”.
4. Push and hold the push button. The display will alternate between “Hold”, “LIVE” and “ESC”.
5. Release the button when desired mode displays.
6. “SAVED” will display, then the unit will power off.

III. pH Measurement

The following table explains what the LED Indicator Light signals indicate and gives the duration of each signal:

LED Signal Action Duration
Rapid Flashing Dip pen in solution. 6 sec
Slow Flashing Measurement in process.
In LIVE mode, the readings are displayed. In LIVE mode, note measurement values. 10-30 sec in Hold mode 60 sec in LIVE mode
Solid Light (Hold mode only) Measurement is complete.
In Hold mode, captured readings are displayed. In Hold mode, note measurement values. 6 sec

CAUTION: To measure solution at the extremes of the specified temperature or pH range, allow the pen to equilibrate by submerging the sensor in the sample solution for 1 minute prior to taking a measurement.

NOTE: If you cannot dip the pen in the sample solution, pour the sample into a clean container. If you don’t have a container or need to test a vertical stream of solution, use the scoop to hold sample solution.

1. Rinse the pen. If measuring from a container, submerge the pen and swirl it around in FRESH sample solution 3 times. Alternatively, 30 seconds under a stream or of swirling in a body of water is sufficient to prepare the sensor for measurement.
2. Remove pen from solution. (Fill the container one more time with FRESH
sample solution, if applicable.) Then push and release the push button.
3. Grasp the pen by its case with your fingers positioned between the display and
the battery cap to avoid sample contamination.
4. While the LED flashes rapidly, dip the pen in FRESH sample solution so that the sensor is completely submerged. If you do not submerge the sensor in solution before the fl slows, allow the pen to power off and retake the reading.
5. While the LED flashes slowly, swirl the pen around to remove bubbles, keeping
the sensor submerged.
a. In Hold mode when the LED turns on solid, remove the pen from solution.

The display will alternate between the final pH and temperature readings.
Note the readings for your records.
b. In LIVE mode allow the pen to remain in solution while the LED flashes slowly. The display will alternate between live pH and temperature readings. Note the readings for your records. LIVE measurement will time out after 1 minute OR push and release the push button to power the pen off at any time during LIVE measurement.

MyronLMeters.com is the premier internet retailer of the Ultrapen PT2 and other reliable Myron L meters. Save 10% on Myron L meters when you order online HERE.

Categories : Product Updates

Ultrapen PT2 pH Tester Features: MyronLMeters.com

Posted by 3 Apr, 2014

TweetThe ULTRAPEN™ PT2 pH Pen is designed to be extremely accurate, fast and simple to use in diverse water quality applications. Advanced features include automatic temperature compensation; highly stable microprocessor-based circuitry; user-intuitive design; and waterproof housing. A true one- handed instrument, the PT2 is easy to calibrate and easy to use. To take a measurement, […]

The ULTRAPEN™ PT2 pH Pen is designed to be extremely accurate, fast and simple to use in diverse water quality applications. Advanced features include automatic temperature compensation; highly stable microprocessor-based circuitry; user-intuitive design; and waterproof housing. A true one- handed instrument, the PT2 is easy to calibrate and easy to use. To take a measurement, you simply push a button then dip the pen in solution. Results display in seconds.

FEATURES
1. Push Button — turns instrument on; selects mode and unit preferences.
2. Battery Cap — provides access to battery for replacement.
3. Pocket Clip — holds pen to shirt pocket for secure storage.
4. Battery Indicator — indicates charge left in battery.
5. Display — displays measurements, menu options, battery indicator, and firmware revision (during power-up).
6. LED Indicator Light — indicates when to dip instrument in solution, when measurement is in progress, and when to remove instrument from solution.
7. pH Sensor — measures hydrogen ion concentration of solution.
8. Soaker Cap — contains a sponge soaked with pH Sensor Storage Solution to maintain sensor hydration. To remove, twist the soaker cap while pulling off. To replace, fill the soaker cap with storage solution just until the sponge is covered. Pour out any excess solution. Twist the soaker cap while pushing back on.
CAUTION: Do NOT overfill the soaker cap as solution can squirt out while you are pushing the cap back on.
9. Scoop — used to hold sample solution when dipping is not possible. To install, push the scoop onto the sensor
while shifting side-to-side. To remove, pull the scoop off while shifting side-to-side. Verify the pH sensor remained fully inserted into the PT2. If not, reinstall per pH Sensor Replacement, p. 5. To use, pour solution into the scoop or hold the scoop directly under a vertical stream to collect sample.
10. Holster — run your belt through the strap in the back of the holster for hands-free portability.
11. Lanyard — attach through hole in top of pocket clip.

SPECIFICATIONS
pH Temperature
Range: 0.00-14.00pH 0-71°C/32-160°F
Accuracy: ± 0.01pH (After Wet Calibration) ±0.1ºC/±0.1ºF
Repeatability: ± 0.01pH ±0.1ºC/±0.1ºF
Resolution: 0.01pH 0.1ºC/0.1ºF
Time to Reading Stabilization: 10-30 seconds
Power Consumption: Active Mode 37mA, Sleep Mode 2µA
Temperature Compensation: Automatic to 25ºC
Physical Dimensions: 17.15cm L x 1.59cm D or 6.75in. L x 0.625in. D
Weight: 54g/1.9oz. (without soaker cap and lanyard)
Case Material: Anodized Aircraft Aluminum with Protective Coating
Battery Type: N type, Alkaline, 1.5V
Calibration Solutions: pH4, pH7, pH10
Operating/Storage Temperature: 0-55ºC or 32-131ºF
Enclosure Ratings: IP67 and NEMA6
EN61236-1: 2006 – Annex A: 2008: Electrostatic discharge to case of instrument may cause PT2 to spontaneously power on. If this happens, the PT2 will power itself off within seconds.

MyronLMeters.com is the premier internet retailer of the Ultrapen PT2 and other reliable Myron L meters. Save 10% on Myron L meters when you order online HERE.

Categories : Product Updates

Ultrameter II Calibrate pH for the 6PII

Posted by 22 Mar, 2014

TweetUltrameter II Calibrate pH for the 6PII.


Ultrameter II Calibrate pH for the 6PII.

Categories : Videos

Conductivity Conversion to TDS in the Ultrameter: MyronLMeters.com

Posted by 1 Mar, 2014

TweetElectrical conductivity indicates solution concentration and ionization of the dissolved material. Since temperature greatly affects ionization, conductivity measurements are temperature dependent and are normally corrected to read what they would be at 25°C. A.           How It’s Done Once the effect of temperature is removed, the compensated conductivity is a function of the concentration (TDS). Temperature […]

Electrical conductivity indicates solution concentration and ionization of the dissolved material. Since temperature greatly affects ionization, conductivity measurements are temperature dependent and are normally corrected to read what they would be at 25°C.

A.           How It’s Done

Once the effect of temperature is removed, the compensated conductivity is a function of the concentration (TDS). Temperature compensation of the conductivity of a solution is performed automatically by the internal processor with data derived from chemical tables. Any dissolved salt at a known temperature has a known ratio of conductivity to concentration. Tables of conversion ratios referenced to 25°C have been published by chemists for decades.

B.           Solution Characteristics

Real world applications have to measure a wide range of materials and mixtures of electrolyte solutions. To address this problem, industrial users commonly use the characteristics of a standard material as a model for their solution, such as KCl, which is favored by chemists for its stability.

Users dealing with sea water, etc., use NaCl as the model for their concentration calculations. Users dealing with freshwater work with mixtures including sulfates, carbonates and chlorides, the three predominant components (anions) in freshwater that Myron L calls “Natural Water”. These are modeled in a mixture called “442™” which Myron L uses as a calibration standard, as it does standard KCl and NaCl solutions.

The Ultrameter II contains algorithms for these 3 most commonly referenced compounds. The solution type in use is displayed on the left. Besides KCl, NaCl, and 442, there is the User choice. The benefit of the User solution type is that one may enter the temperature compensation and TDS ratio by hand, greatly increasing accuracy of readings for a specific solution. That value remains a constant for all measurements and should be reset for different dilutions or temperatures.

C.           When does it make a lot of difference?

First, the accuracy of temperature compensation to 25°C determines the accuracy of any TDS conversion. Assume we have industrial process water to be pretreated by RO. Assume it is 45°C and reads 1500 µS uncompensated.

1.         If NaCl compensation is used, an instrument would report 1035 µS compensated, which corresponds to 510 ppm NaCl.

2.         If 442 compensation is used, an instrument would report 1024 µS compensated, which corresponds to 713 ppm 442.

The difference in values is 40%.

In spite of such large error, some users will continue to take data in the NaCl mode because their previous data gathering and process monitoring was done with an older NaCl referenced device.

Selecting the correct Solution Type on the Ultrameter II will allow the user to attain true TDS readings that correspond to evaporated weight.

If none of the 3 standard solutions apply, the User mode must be used.

TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION (Tempco) and TDS DERIVATION

The Ultrameter II contains internal algorithms for characteristics of the 3 most commonly referenced compounds. The solution type in use is displayed on the left. Besides KCl, NaCl, and 442, there is the User choice. The benefit of User mode is that one may enter the tempco and TDS conversion values of a unique solution via the keypad.

A. Conductivity Characteristics
When taking conductivity measurements, the Solution Selection determines the characteristic assumed as the instrument reports what a measured conductivity would be if it were at 25°C. The characteristic is represented by the tempco, expressed in %/°C. If a solution of 100 µS at 25°C increases to 122 µS at 35°C, then a 22% increase has occurred over this change of 10°C. The solution is then said to have a tempco of 2.2 %/°C. Tempco always varies among solutions because it is dependent on their individual ionization activity, temperature and concentration. This is why the Ultrameter II features mathematically generated models for known salt characteristics that also vary with concentration and temperature.

B. Finding the Tempco of an Unknown Solution

One may need to measure compensated conductivity of some solution unlike any of the 3 standard salts. In order to enter a custom fixed tempco for a limited measurement range, enter a specific value through the User function. The tempco can be determined by 2 different methods:

1. Heat or cool a sample of the solution to 25°C, and measure its conductivity. Heat or cool the solution to a typical temperature where it is normally measured. After selecting User function, set the tempco to 0 %/°C as in Disabling Temperature Compensation, pg. 15 (No compensation). Measure the new conductivity and the new temperature. Divide the % decrease or increase by the 25°C value. Divide that difference by the temperature difference.

2. Heat or cool a sample of the solution to 25°C, and measure its conductivity. Change the temperature to a typical measuring temperature. Set the tempco to an expected value as in User Programmable Temperature Compensation, pg. 15. See if the compensated value is the same as the 25°C value. If not, raise or lower the tempco and measure again until the 25°C value is read.

C. Finding the TDS Ratio of an Unknown Solution

Once the effect of temperature is removed, the compensated conductivity is a function of the concentration (TDS).

There is a ratio of TDS to compensated conductivity for any solution, which varies with concentration. The ratio is set during calibration in User mode as in User Programmable Conductivity to TDS Ratio, pg. 16.
A truly unknown solution has to have its TDS determined by evaporation and weighing. Then the solution whose TDS is now known can be measured for conductivity and the ratio calculated. Next time the same solution is to be measured, the ratio is known.

ph and ORP (6PFCE)

1. pH as an Indicator (6PFCE)

pH is the measurement of Acidity or Alkalinity of an aqueous solution. It is also stated as the Hydrogen Ion activity of a solution. pH measures the effective, not the total, acidity of a solution.
A 4% solution of acetic acid (pH 4, vinegar) can be quite palatable, but a 4% solution of sulfuric acid (pH 0) is a violent poison. pH provides the needed quantitative information by expressing the degree of activity of an acid or base. In a solution of one known component, pH will indicate concentration indirectly. However, very dilute solutions may be very slow reading, just because the very few ions take time to accumulate.

2. pH Units (6PFCE)

The acidity or alkalinity of a solution is a measurement of the relative availabilities of hydrogen (H+) and hydroxide (OH-) ions. An increase in (H+) ions increases acidity, while an increase in (OH-) ions increases alkalinity. The total concentration of ions is fixed as a characteristic of water, and balance would be 10-7 mol/liter (H+) and (OH-) ions in a neutral solution (where pH sensors give 0 voltage).
pH is defined as the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration. Where (H+) concentration falls below 10-7, solutions are less acidic than neutral, and therefore are alkaline. A concentration of 10-9 mol/liter of (H+) would have 100 times less (H+) ions than (OH-) ions and be called an alkaline solution of pH 9.

3. The pH Sensor (6PFCE)

The active part of the pH sensor is a thin glass surface that is selectively receptive to hydrogen ions. Available hydrogen ions in a solution will accumulate on this surface and a charge will build up across the glass interface. The voltage can be measured with a very high impedance voltmeter circuit; the dilemma is how to connect the voltmeter to solution on each side.
The glass surface encloses a captured solution of potassium chloride holding an electrode of silver wire coated with silver chloride. This is the most inert connection possible from a metal to an electrolyte. It can
still produce an offset voltage, but using the same materials to connect to the solution on the other side of the membrane causes the 2 equal offsets to cancel.
The problem is, on the other side of the membrane is an unknown test solution, not potassium chloride. The outside electrode, also called the Reference Junction, is of the same construction with a porous plug in place of a glass barrier to allow the junction fluid to contact the test solution without significant migration of liquids through the plug material. Figure 33 shows a typical 2 component pair. Migration does occur, and this limits the lifetime of a pH junction from depletion of solution inside the reference junction or from contamination. The junction may be damaged if dried out because insoluble crystals may form in a layer, obstructing contact with test solutions.

Capture

Figure 33

 

Glass Surface

H+ ions

Junction plug
Platinum button

 

KCl solution

 

 

Glass

 

 

Electrode wires

 

 

 

4. The Myron L Integral pH Sensor (6PFCE)

The sensor in the Ultrameter II (see Figure 34) is a single construction in an easily replaceable package. The sensor body holds an oversize solution supply for long life. The reference junction “wick” is porous to provide a very stable, low permeable interface, and is located under the glass pH sensing electrode. This construction combines all the best features of any pH sensor known.

5. Sources of Error (6PFCE)

The most common sensor problem will be a clogged junction because a sensor was allowed to dry out. The symptom is a drift in the “zero” setting at 7 pH. This is why the Ultrameter II 6PFCE does not allow more than 1 pH unit of offset during calibration. At that point the junction is unreliable.

b. Sensitivity Problems

Sensitivity is the receptiveness of the glass surface. A film on the surface can diminish sensitivity and cause a long response time.

c. Temperature Compensation

pH sensor glass changes its sensitivity slightly with temperature, so the further from pH 7 one is, the more effect will be seen. A pH of 11 at 40°C would be off by 0.2 units. The Ultrameter II 6PFCE senses the sensor well temperature and compensates the reading.

B. ORP/Oxidation-Reduction Potential/REDOX (6PFCE)

1. ORP as an Indicator (6PFCE)

ORP is the measurement of the ratio of oxidizing activity to reducing activity in a solution. It is the potential of a solution to give up electrons (oxidize other things) or gain electrons (reduce).
Like acidity and alkalinity, the increase of one is at the expense of the other, so a single voltage is called the Oxidation-Reduction Potential, with a positive voltage showing, a solution wants to steal electrons (oxidizing agent). For instance, chlorinated water will show a positive ORP value.

2. ORP Units (6PFCE)

ORP is measured in millivolts, with no correction for solution temperature. Like pH, it is not a measurement of concentration directly, but of activity level. In a solution of only one active component, ORP indicates concentration. Also, as with pH, a very dilute solution will take time to accumulate a readable charge.

3. The ORP Sensor (6PFCE)
An ORP sensor uses a small platinum surface to accumulate charge without reacting chemically. That charge is measured relative to the solution, so the solution “ground” voltage comes from a reference junction – same as the pH sensor uses.

4. The Myron L ORP Sensor (6PFCE)

Figure 34, pg. 45, shows the platinum button in a glass sleeve. The same reference is used for both the pH and the ORP sensors. Both pH and ORP will indicate 0 for a neutral solution. Calibration at zero compensates for error in the reference junction. A zero calibration solution for ORP is not practical, so the Ultrameter II 6PFCE uses the offset value determined during calibration to 7 in pH calibration (pH 7 = 0 mV). Sensitivity of the ORP surface is fixed, so there is no gain adjustment either.

5. Sources of Error (6PFCE)

The basics are presented in pH and ORP, pg. 44, because sources of error are much the same as for pH. The junction side is the same, and though the platinum surface will not break like the glass pH surface, its protective glass sleeve can be broken. A surface film will slow the response time and diminish sensitivity. It can be cleaned off with detergent or acid, as with the pH glass.

C. Free Chlorine

1. Free Chlorine as an Indicator of Sanitizing Strength Chlorine, which kills bacteria by way of its power as an oxidizing agent, is the most popular germicide used in water treatment. Chlorine is not only used as a primary disinfectant, but also to establish a sufficient residual level of Free Available Chlorine (FAC) for ongoing disinfection.

FAC is the chlorine that remains after a certain amount is consumed by killing bacteria or reacting with other organic (ammonia, fecal matter) or inorganic (metals, dissolved CO2, Carbonates, etc) chemicals in solution. Measuring the amount of residual free chlorine in treated water is a well accepted method for determining its effectiveness in microbial control.

The Myron L  FCE method for measuring residual disinfecting power is based on ORP, the specific chemical attribute of chlorine (and other oxidizing germicides) that kills bacteria and microbes.

2. FCE Free Chlorine Units

The 6PIIFCE is the first handheld device to detect free chlorine directly, by measuring ORP. The ORP value is converted to a concentration reading (ppm) using a conversion table developed by Myron L Company through a series of experiments that precisely controlled chlorine levels and excluded interferants.

Other test methods typically rely on the user visually or digitally interpreting a color change resulting from an added reagent-dye. The reagent used radically alters the sample’s pH and converts the various chlorine species present into a single, easily measured species. This ignores the effect of changing pH on free chlorine effectiveness and disregards the fact that some chlorine species are better or worse sanitizers than others.

The Myron L 6PIIFCE avoids these pitfalls. The chemistry of the test sample is left unchanged from the source water. It accounts for the effect of pH on chlorine effectiveness by including pH in its calculation. For these reasons, the Ultrameter II’s FCE feature provides the best reading-to-reading picture of the rise and fall in sanitizing effectivity of free available chlorine.

The 6PIIFCE also avoids a common undesirable characteristic of other ORP-based methods by including a unique Predictive ORP value in its FCE calculation. This feature, based on a proprietary model for ORP sensor behavior, calculates a final stabilized ORP value in 1 to 2 minutes rather than the 10 to 15 minutes or more that is typically required for an ORP measurement.

The Myron L Ultrameter II 6PFCe is available at MyronLMeters.com, the premier internet retailer of Myron L products. Save 10% on the Myron L Ultrameter II6 PFCe when you order online here: http://www.myronlmeters.com/Myron-L-6P-Ultrameter-II-Multiparameter-Meter-p/dh-umii-6pii.htm

 

Categories : Application Advice, Technical Tips