What is pH?
pH measures the activity of the (solvated) hydrogen ion. Pure water has a pH very close to 7 at 25°C. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline. The pH scale is traceable to a set of standard solutions whose pH is established by international agreement. Measuring pH for aqueous solutions can be done with a glass electrode and a pH meter, or using indicators.
Measuring pH is important in water treatment, medicine, biology, chemistry, agriculture, forestry, food science, environmental science, oceanography, civil engineering, chemical engineering, and many other applications.
p[H] was first introduced by Danish chemist Søren Peder Lauritz Sørensen at the Carlsberg Laboratory in 1909 and revised to the modern pH in 1924 to accommodate definitions and measurements in terms of electrochemical cells. According to the Carlsberg Foundation pH stands for “power of hydrogen”.
pH is defined as the decimal logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion activity, aH+, in a solution.
A pH meter is an electronic device used for measuring the pH (acidity or alkalinity) of a liquid (though special probes are sometimes used to measure the pH of semi-solid substances). A typical pH meter consists of a special measuring probe (a glass electrode) connected to an electronic meter that measures and displays the pH reading.
The pH probe measures pH as the activity of the hydrogen cations surrounding a thin-walled glass bulb at its tip. The probe produces a small voltage (about 0.06 volt per pH unit) that is measured and displayed as pH units by the meter. For more information about pH probe care or replacement, please consult your Myron L meter operations manual.
Calibration and use
*Please consult your Myron L meter operations manual before calibrating.
For very precise work the pH meter should be calibrated before each measurement. For normal use calibration should be performed at the beginning of each day. The reason for this is that the glass electrode does not give a reproducible e.m.f. over longer periods of time. Calibration should be performed with at least two standard buffer solutions that span the range of pH values to be measured. For general purposes buffers at pH 4 and pH 10 are acceptable. The pH meter has one control (calibrate) to set the meter reading equal to the value of the first standard buffer and a second control (slope) which is used to adjust the meter reading to the value of the second buffer. A third control allows the temperature to be set. Standard buffer solutions, which can be obtained from MyronLMeters.com here:
usually state how the buffer value changes with temperature. For more precise measurements, a three buffer solution calibration is preferred. As pH 7 is essentially, a “zero point” calibration (akin to zeroing a scale), calibrating at pH 7 first, calibrating at the pH closest to the point of interest ( e.g. either 4 or 10) second and checking the third point will provide a more linear accuracy to what is essentially a non-linear problem. Some meters will allow a three point calibration and that is the preferred scheme for the most accurate work, and is recommended by Myron L Meters. Higher quality meters will have a provision to account for temperature coefficient correction, and high-end pH probes have temperature probes built in. The calibration process correlates the voltage produced by the probe (approximately 0.06 volts per pH unit) with the pH scale. After each single measurement, the probe is rinsed with distilled water or deionized water to remove any traces of the solution being measured, blotted with a scientific wipe to absorb any remaining water which could dilute the sample and thus alter the reading, and then quickly immersed in another solution.
Storage conditions of the glass probes
When not in use, the glass probe tip must be kept wet at all times to avoid the pH sensing membrane dehydration and the subsequent dysfunction of the electrode. You can get your sensor storage solution here:
A glass electrode alone (i.e., without combined reference electrode) is typically stored immersed in an acidic solution of around pH 3.0. In an emergency, acidified tap water can be used, but distilled or deionised water must never be used for longer-term probe storage as the relatively ionless water “sucks” ions out of the probe membrane through diffusion, which degrades it.
Combined electrodes (glass membrane + reference electrode) are better stored immersed in the bridge electrolyte (often KCl 3 M) to avoid the diffusion of the electrolyte (KCl) out of the liquid junction.
Cleaning and troubleshooting of the glass probes
Occasionally (about once a month), the probe may be cleaned using pH-electrode cleaning solution; generally a 0.1 M solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl) is used, having a pH of one.
In case of strong degradation of the glass membrane performance due to membrane poisoning, diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF < 2 %) can be used to quickly etch (< 1 minute) a thin damaged film of glass. Alternatively a dilute solution of ammonium fluoride (NH4F) can be used. To avoid unexpected problems, the best practice is however to always refer to the electrode manufacturer recommendations or to a classical textbook of analytical chemistry.
Types of pH meters
A pH meter for every industry
pH meters range from simple and inexpensive pen-like devices to complex and expensive laboratory instruments with computer interfaces and several inputs for indicator and temperature measurements to be entered to adjust for the slight variation in pH caused by temperature. Specialty meters and probes are available for use in special applications, harsh environments, etc. Myron L Meters offers a simple pen-style pH meter, analog handheld meters, digital handheld multiparameter meters, and inline monitor/controllers.
ULTRAPEN PT2 pH and Temperature Pen
Accuracy of +/- 0.01 pH
Reliable Repeatable Results
Automatic Temperature Compensation
Durable, Fully Potted Circuitry
Comes with 2oz bottle of pH Storage Solution
Agri-Meter – Ag-6: 0-5 millimhos; 2-12 pH
Instant and accurate TDS tests
Electronic Internal Standard for easy field calibration
Fast Auto Temperature Compensation
Rugged design for years of trouble-free testing
Simple to use
Multi-Parameter: Conductivity, TDS, Resistivity, pH, ORP, Temperature, Free Chlorine (FCE)
+/-1% Accuracy of Reading
Memory Storage: Save up to 100 samples w/ Date & Time stamp
Wireless Download Module Optional
The advanced “isolated” circuitry of the 720 Series II pH/ORP Monitor/ controllers guarantees accurate and reliable measurements — completely eliminating ground-loop and noise issues.
The unique sensor preamp allows for longer distances between the sensor and the Monitor/controller without the loss of accuracy or reliability.
All Myron L Monitor/controllers feature a highly refined and precise Temperature Compensation circuit. This feature perfectly matches the NERNST equation correcting the displayed reading to 25’C. The TC may be disabled to conform to USP requirements.