Tweet Water Quality Parameters Measuring Key Water Quality Parameters The right meter is essential for measuring any of several key water quality parameters: Conductivity is the ability of water to conduct an electrical current and is an indirect measure of the conductive ionic mineral concentration. The more conductive ions that are present, the more electricity […]
TweetThe right meter is essential for measuring any of several key water quality parameters:Conductivity is the ability of water to conduct an electrical current and is an indirect measure of the conductive ionic mineral concentration. The more conductive ions that are present, the more electricity can be conducted by the water. This measurement is expressed […]
The right meter is essential for measuring any of several key water quality parameters:
Conductivity is the ability of water to conduct an electrical current and is an indirect measure of the conductive ionic mineral concentration. The more conductive ions that are present, the more electricity can be conducted by the water. This measurement is expressed in microsiemens per centimeter (µS/cm) at 25º Celsius. Myron L Meters carries a complete line of conductivity meters, including the Ultrameter II 4P.
Resistivity is the inverse of conductivity. Electrical conductivity is a measure of water’s resistance to an electric current. Water itself has a weak electrical conductivity. Electric current is transported in water by dissolved ions, making conductivity measurement a quick and reliable way to monitor the total amount of ionic contaminants in water. Myron L Meters carries a complete line of resistivity meters, including inline monitor/controllers like the 753II Resistivity Digital Monitor/Controller.
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is also a measurement of the amount of dissolved minerals in the water. In this instance they would be called solids in solution. The quantity of dissolved solids in the solution is directly proportional to the conductivity. In this case, conductivity is the measurement but it is used to estimate TDS. It is measured with a conductivity meter but is reported as TDS in parts per million (ppm), via a complex algorithm. Myron L Meters carries a complete line of TDS meters, including the Ultrapen PT1.
pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in the water, indicating the acidity or alkalinity of the water. On the pH scale of 0-14, a reading of 7 is considered to be neutral. Readings below 7 indicate acidic conditions, while readings above 7 indicate the water is alkaline or basic. Naturally occurring fresh waters have a pH range between 6 and 8. Myron L Meters carries a complete line of pH meters, including the Ultrapen PT2
Temperature is expressed in degrees Celsius (C) or Fahrenheit (F). Most digital handheld Myron L Meters include a temperature function.
Oxidation reduction potential (ORP)can correlate millivolt readings to the sanitization strength of the water. Microbes can cause corrosion, fouling, and disease, and oxidizing biocides are usually used to keep microbial levels under control. ORP is expressed in millivolts (mV). Myron L Meters carries a complete line of ORP meters, including the Ultrapen PT3
Free Chlorine refers to both hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and the hypochlorite (OCl–) ion or bleach, and is commonly added to water systems for disinfection. Free chlorine is typically measured in drinking water disinfection systems to find whether the water system contains enough disinfectant. Myron L Meters Ultrameter II 6PFCe and Ultrapen PT4 can both be used to measure free chlorine.
Salinity is simply a measure of the amount of salts dissolved in water, a measurement useful to pool service technicians and others. You can measure salinity with a Myron L Pool Pro PS6.
Alkalinity is a measure of the capacity of water or any solution to neutralize or “buffer” acids. This measure of acid-neutralizing capacity is important in figuring out how “buffered” the water is against sudden changes in pH. Alkalinity is a titration function of the Ultrameter III 9PTKA.
Hardness is caused by compounds of calcium and magnesium, and by a variety of other metals. As water moves through soil and rock, it dissolves very small amounts of minerals and holds them in solution. Calcium and magnesium dissolved in water are the two most common minerals that make water “hard.” Hardness is a titration function of the Ultrameter III 9PTKA.
LSI or Langelier Saturation Index helps you determine the scaling potential of water. LSI is a calculated number used to predict the calcium carbonate stability of water. It indicates whether the water will precipitate, dissolve, or be in equilibrium with calcium carbonate. LSI is a titration function of the Ultrameter III 9PTKA.
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Tweet Ultrapen PT3 ORP tester Though the measurement of free chlorine concentration is often indicated for the disinfection of water and disinfectant byproduct control, there is a better way. Because free chlorine works through oxidation, ORP instrumentation can be used to monitor and control its effectiveness. ORP measures the actual oxidation power of the solution, […]
TweetYears ago, high purity water was used only in limited applications. Today, deionized (Dl) water has become an essential ingredient in hundreds of applications including: medical, laboratory, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, electronics manufacturing, food processing, plating, countless industrial processes, and even the final rinse at the local car wash.THE DEIONIZATION PROCESSThe vast majority of dissolved impurities in […]
Years ago, high purity water was used only in limited applications. Today, deionized (Dl) water has become an essential ingredient in hundreds of applications including: medical, laboratory, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, electronics manufacturing, food processing, plating, countless industrial processes, and even the final rinse at the local car wash.
THE DEIONIZATION PROCESSThe vast majority of dissolved impurities in modern water supplies are ions such as calcium, sodium, chlorides, etc. The deionization process removes ions from water via ion exchange. Positively charged ions (cations) and negatively charged ions (anions) are exchanged for hydrogen (H+) and hydroxyl (OH-) ions, respectively, due to the resin’s greater affinity for other ions. The ion exchange process occurs on the binding sites of the resin beads. Once depleted of exchange capacity, the resin bed is regenerated with concentrated acid and caustic which strips away accumulated ions through physical displacement, leaving hydrogen or hydroxyl ions in their place.
DEIONIZER TYPESDeionizers exist in four basic forms: disposable cartridges, portable exchange tanks, automatic units, and continuous units. A two-bed system employs separate cation and anion resin beds. Mixed-bed deionizers utilize both resins in the same vessel. The highest quality water is produced by mixed-bed deionizers, while two-bed deionizers have a larger capacity. Continuous deionizers, mainly used in labs for polishing, do not require regeneration.
TESTING Dl WATER QUALITYWater quality from deionizers varies with the type of resins used, feed water quality, flow, efficiency of regeneration, remaining capacity, etc. Because of these variables, it is critical in many Dl water applications to know the precise quality. Resistivity/ conductivity is the most convenient method for testing Dl water quality. Deionized pure water is a poor electrical conductor, having a resistivity of 18.2 million ohm-cm (18.2 megohm) and conductivity of 0.055 microsiemens. It is the amount of ionized substances (or salts) dissolved in the water which determines water’s ability to conduct electricity. Therefore, resistivity and its inverse, conductivity, are good general purpose quality parameters.
Because temperature dramatically affects the conductivity of water, conductivity measurements are internationally referenced to 25°C to allow for comparisons of different samples. With typical water supplies, temperature changes the conductivity an average of 2%/°C, which is relatively easy to compensate. Deionized water, however, is much more challenging to accurately measure since temperature effects can approach 10%/°C! Accurate automatic temperature compensation, therefore, is the “heart’ of any respectable instrument.
RECOMMENDED MYRON L METERSPortable instruments are typically used to measure Dl water quality at points of use, pinpoint problems in a Dl system confirm monitor readings, and test the feed water to the system. The handheld Myron L meters have been the first choice of Dl water professionals for many years. For two-bed Dl systems, there are several usable models with displays in either microsiemens or ppm (parts per million) of total dissolved solids. The most versatile instruments for Dl water is the 4P or 6PFCE Ultrameter II™, which can measure both ultrapure mixedbed quality water and unpurified water. It should be noted that once Dl water leaves the piping, its resistivity will drop because the water absorbs dissolved carbon dioxide from the air. Measuring of ultrapure water with a hand-held instrument requires not only the right instrument, but the right technique to obtain accurate, repeatable readings. Myron L meters offer the accuracy and precision necessary for ultrapure water measurements.
Inline Monitor/controllers are generally used in the more demanding Dl water applications. Increased accuracy is realized since the degrading effect of carbon dioxide on high purity water is avoided by use of an in-line sensor (cell). This same degradation of ultrapure water is the reason there are no resistivity calibration standard solutions (as with conductivity instruments). Electronic sensor substitutes are normally used to calibrate resistivity Monitor/controllers.
Myron L Meters carries a variety of inline instruments, including resistivity Monitor/controllers designed specifically for Dl water. Seven resistivity ranges are available to suit any Dl water application: 0-20 megohm, 0-10 megohm, 0-5 megohm, 0-2 megohm, 0-1 megohm, 0-500 kilohm, and 0-200 kilohm. Temperature compensation is automatic and achieved via a dual thermistor circuit. Monitor/controller models contain an internal adjustable set point, piezo alarm connectors and a heavy-duty 10 amp relay circuit which can be used to control an alarm, valves, pump, etc. Available options include 4-20 milliamp output, 3 sensor input, 3 range capability and temperature. Internal electronic sensor substitutes are standard on all Monitor/controllers.
Sensors are available constructed in either 316 stainless steel or titanium. All sensors are provided with a 3/4” MNPT polypropylene bushing and 10 ft./3 meters of cable. Optional PVDF or stainless steel bushings can be ordered, as well as longer cable lengths up to 100 ft./30 meters.
The following table briefly covers recommended Myron L meters for Dl water applications.
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Tweet New Ultrapen Resources New Ultrapen Resources YouTube, Myron L Meters Blog, and Product Pages At Myron L Meters, we’ve been busy lately updating our YouTube Channel to bring you the latest product overviews, calibration, care and maintenance, and product features videos. We’ve been keeping them short and focused because we know you’re busy. We’re […]
Tweet Reverse Osmosis RO Meter – RO-1: 0-1250 ppm with color band RO Meters The choice of professionals for years, this compact instrument has been designed specifically to demonstrate and test Point of Use (POU) reverse osmosis or distillation systems. By measuring electrical conductivity, it will quickly determine the parts per million/Total Dissolved Solids […]
Tweet Myron L Meters Improved FAQ FAQ pages should be a simple, and quick, way to share answers to common questions held by visitors and customers. A good FAQ page should always be helpful to us and our customers.Our new FAQ section will feature straightforward answers, organized video links, links to blog posts, and site […]
Tweet Using MyronLMeters.com Stay up-to-date with an ever-changing world of water treatment regulations, industry events, news, and science at MyronLMeters.com. We believe that a strong, well-informed water industry network is essential. We’ve put together user-friendly pages for water treatment professionals with science updates, networking, news, government resources, associations, and publications for both North American and […]
Tweet Where You Can Find us How to Find Myron L Meters You’ll find us in some of the largest dialysis clinics in America. We’re testing some great pools. We’re testing soil on the farm. We’re helping keep your drinking water clean. We’re at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. And we’re always here when you […]
TweetUltrapen PT2 product review. Myron L Meters presents a review of the Ultrapen PT2 that measures pH. In this video, we cover the steps for measuring pH, changing the temperature setting, changing the pH measurement mode, and overall features.Order the Ultrapen PT2 here: http://www.myronlmeters.com/Myron-L-PT2-Ultrapen-Multiparameter-pH-temperature-p/dh-up-pt2-ss.htm
Order the Ultrapen PT2 here: http://www.myronlmeters.com/Myron-L-PT2-Ultrapen-Multiparameter-pH-temperature-p/dh-up-pt2-ss.htm