Case Studies & Application Stories
Tweet FDA Warning Are You FDA Compliant? In recent news “A warning letter sent to (a dialysis clinic operator) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)”… “FDA said the company needs to take “prompt action to correct the violations addressed in the letter,” and that failure to comply could lead to more serious regulatory […]
Tweet Ultrapen PT3 ORP tester Though the measurement of free chlorine concentration is often indicated for the disinfection of water and disinfectant byproduct control, there is a better way. Because free chlorine works through oxidation, ORP instrumentation can be used to monitor and control its effectiveness. ORP measures the actual oxidation power of the solution, […]
TweetYears ago, high purity water was used only in limited applications. Today, deionized (Dl) water has become an essential ingredient in hundreds of applications including: medical, laboratory, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, electronics manufacturing, food processing, plating, countless industrial processes, and even the final rinse at the local car wash. THE DEIONIZATION PROCESS The vast majority of dissolved […]
Years ago, high purity water was used only in limited applications. Today, deionized (Dl) water has become an essential ingredient in hundreds of applications including: medical, laboratory, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, electronics manufacturing, food processing, plating, countless industrial processes, and even the final rinse at the local car wash.
THE DEIONIZATION PROCESS
The vast majority of dissolved impurities in modern water supplies are ions such as calcium, sodium, chlorides, etc. The deionization process removes ions from water via ion exchange. Positively charged ions (cations) and negatively charged ions (anions) are exchanged for hydrogen (H+) and hydroxyl (OH-) ions, respectively, due to the resin’s greater affinity for other ions. The ion exchange process occurs on the binding sites of the resin beads. Once depleted of exchange capacity, the resin bed is regenerated with concentrated acid and caustic which strips away accumulated ions through physical displacement, leaving hydrogen or hydroxyl ions in their place.
Deionizers exist in four basic forms: disposable cartridges, portable exchange tanks, automatic units, and continuous units. A two-bed system employs separate cation and anion resin beds. Mixed-bed deionizers utilize both resins in the same vessel. The highest quality water is produced by mixed-bed deionizers, while two-bed deionizers have a larger capacity. Continuous deionizers, mainly used in labs for polishing, do not require regeneration.
TESTING Dl WATER QUALITY
Water quality from deionizers varies with the type of resins used, feed water quality, flow, efficiency of regeneration, remaining capacity, etc. Because of these variables, it is critical in many Dl water applications to know the precise quality. Resistivity/ conductivity is the most convenient method for testing Dl water quality. Deionized pure water is a poor electrical conductor, having a resistivity of 18.2 million ohm-cm (18.2 megohm) and conductivity of 0.055 microsiemens. It is the amount of ionized substances (or salts) dissolved in the water which determines water’s ability to conduct electricity. Therefore, resistivity and its inverse, conductivity, are good general purpose quality parameters.
Because temperature dramatically affects the conductivity of water, conductivity measurements are internationally referenced to 25°C to allow for comparisons of different samples. With typical water supplies, temperature changes the conductivity an average of 2%/°C, which is relatively easy to compensate. Deionized water, however, is much more challenging to accurately measure since temperature effects can approach 10%/°C! Accurate automatic temperature compensation, therefore, is the “heart’ of any respectable instrument.
RECOMMENDED MYRON L METERS
Portable instruments are typically used to measure Dl water quality at points of use, pinpoint problems in a Dl system confirm monitor readings, and test the feed water to the system. The handheld Myron L meters have been the first choice of Dl water professionals for many years. For two-bed Dl systems, there are several usable models with displays in either microsiemens or ppm (parts per million) of total dissolved solids. The most versatile instruments for Dl water is the 4P or 6PFCE Ultrameter II™, which can measure both ultrapure mixedbed quality water and unpurified water. It should be noted that once Dl water leaves the piping, its resistivity will drop because the water absorbs dissolved carbon dioxide from the air. Measuring of ultrapure water with a hand-held instrument requires not only the right instrument, but the right technique to obtain accurate, repeatable readings. Myron L meters offer the accuracy and precision necessary for ultrapure water measurements.
Inline Monitor/controllers are generally used in the more demanding Dl water applications. Increased accuracy is realized since the degrading effect of carbon dioxide on high purity water is avoided by use of an in-line sensor (cell). This same degradation of ultrapure water is the reason there are no resistivity calibration standard solutions (as with conductivity instruments). Electronic sensor substitutes are normally used to calibrate resistivity Monitor/controllers.
Myron L Meters carries a variety of inline instruments, including resistivity Monitor/controllers designed specifically for Dl water. Seven resistivity ranges are available to suit any Dl water application: 0-20 megohm, 0-10 megohm, 0-5 megohm, 0-2 megohm, 0-1 megohm, 0-500 kilohm, and 0-200 kilohm. Temperature compensation is automatic and achieved via a dual thermistor circuit. Monitor/controller models contain an internal adjustable set point, piezo alarm connectors and a heavy-duty 10 amp relay circuit which can be used to control an alarm, valves, pump, etc. Available options include 4-20 milliamp output, 3 sensor input, 3 range capability and temperature. Internal electronic sensor substitutes are standard on all Monitor/controllers.
Sensors are available constructed in either 316 stainless steel or titanium. All sensors are provided with a 3/4″ MNPT polypropylene bushing and 10 ft./3 meters of cable. Optional PVDF or stainless steel bushings can be ordered, as well as longer cable lengths up to 100 ft./30 meters.
The following table briefly covers recommended Myron L meters for Dl water applications.
Tweet Reverse Osmosis RO Meter – RO-1: 0-1250 ppm with color band RO Meters The choice of professionals for years, this compact instrument has been designed specifically to demonstrate and test Point of Use (POU) reverse osmosis or distillation systems. By measuring electrical conductivity, it will quickly determine the parts per million/Total Dissolved Solids […]
TweetNeed to know the best meter for your application? Review our Bulletins which explain in clear detail the best model for your needs. If you have more questions, visit our FAQ section or send our Experts a question using the contact form. We’ll respond as quickly as possible! Visit MyronLMeters.com for videos, operations manuals, FAQ, […]
Need to know the best meter for your application? Review our Bulletins which explain in clear detail the best model for your needs. If you have more questions, visit our FAQ section or send our Experts a question using the contact form. We’ll respond as quickly as possible! Visit MyronLMeters.com for videos, operations manuals, FAQ, MSDS, and more information about Myron L meters.
Accurate fountain (dampening) solution concentration control is essential for consistent, high-quality results in lithography. Low concentration can cause drying on the non-image area of the plate resulting in tinting, scumming, blanket piling, etc. High concentrations, on the other hand, bring about over-emulsification of the ink. This results in weakening of color strength and changes in ink rheology (body and flow properties). Correct concentration will allow the non-image areas of the plate to be appropriately wetted.
Ways to Test
Traditionally, pH was the test relied on to determine fountain solution concentration. Today, however, conductivity testing is recognized as a much more accurate method. Many modern dampening solutions are pH stabilized (or buffered), so only small changes in pH are seen even when dramatic changes occur in solution strength. Conductivity measurement is a fast and easy test which is more indicative of fountain solution concentration than pH. This is true for all neutral, alkaline, and many acid type solutions.
pH is still important, however, with unbuffered acid fountain solutions. Checking both conductivity and pH can provide valuable information. Acid fountain solution is a mixture of gum arabic, wetting agents, salts, acids, buffers, etc. Conductivity will tell you if the proper amount of most ingredients are present, but pH is necessary to check acid concentrations. pH will also determine how effective one ingredient, gum arabic, will be.
What is conductivity? Conductivity is the measurement of a solution’s ability to conduct an electrical current. It is usually expressed in microsiemens (micromhos). Absolutely pure water is actually a poor electrical conductor. It is the substances dissolved in water which determine how conductive the solution will be. Therefore, conductivity is an excellent indicator of solution strength. To properly measure the conductivity of fountain solutions:
Test and write down the conductivity of the water used to prepare the solution.
Mix the fountain solution concentrate with the water, using the manufacturer’s recommendations or as experience dictates.
Measure the conductivity of the mixed solution.
Subtract the water conductivity value obtained in step 1. This is necessary because tap water quality can change from day to day.
The resulting number is an accurate indicator of fountain solution strength. Caution: because alcohol will lower a solution’s conductivity, always test solution conductivity before and after the addition of alcohol.
Determining the best concentration of fountain solution is mostly ‘trial and error.’ It can be very useful to make a graph, recording readings for every one-half or one ounce of concentrate added to a gallon of water. Record readings on a graph with the vertical axis representing conductivity values and the horizontal axis representing ounces/gallon. Such a graph will help ‘fine tune’ your system during future press runs.
For ‘on the spot’ fountain solution tests, Myron L meters are fast, accurate, and reliable. Measurements are made in seconds simply by pouring a small sample of solution into the instrument cell cup and pressing a button. Automatic temperature compensated accuracy and reliability have made our instruments popular in pressrooms worldwide.
Even though pH usually is not the best method to check the concentration of fountain solution, it is still very important and must be checked regularly. The pH of acid dampening solution affects sensitivity, plate-life, ink-drying, etc. Also, pH can change during a run if the paper has a high acid or alkaline content. pH, therefore, must be maintained at the proper level for good printing.
A convenient and accurate way to test pH (as well as temperature) is the waterproof ULTRAMETER II Model 6P or TECHPRO II TH1. The 6P has a 100 reading memory and the TH1 has a 20 reading memory to store test results onsite. The 6P also measures conductivity. All electrodes are contained in the cell cup for protection. Model M6/PH also measures pH and conductivity.
For continuous monitoring and/or control of fountain solution concentration, we offer a complete series of in-line conductivity instruments. These economical, accurate, and reliable models use a remotely installed sensor and a panel/wall mount meter enclosure. Most contain an adjustable set point and heavy duty relay circuit which can be used to activate alarms, valves, feed pumps, etc. All models contain a 0-10VDC output for a chart recorder or PLC (SCADA) input, if required, (4-20mA output is also available).
The 750 Series II with dual set point option has become quite popular in pressrooms. The two set points allow a ‘safe zone’ for controlling fountain solution concentration.
Ultrameter II 6P, 512M5 and M6/PH are available with the useful LITHO-KIT. This accessory includes a foam-lined, rugged all-plastic carrying case with calibrating solutions and buffers. In addition, a syringe to simplify drawing samples and a thermometer for testing fountain solution temperature are also included.
Tweet WHY ARE TESTS SO IMPORTANT? Modern growing practices include scientific evaluations of soil, water, fertilizers, diseases, etc. While some tests are best performed by a laboratory, others can be easily conducted on location, saving time and money. Three tests in particular, EC, pH, and ALKALINITY, […]
WHY ARE TESTS SO IMPORTANT?
Modern growing practices include scientific evaluations of soil, water, fertilizers, diseases, etc. While some tests are best performed by a laboratory, others can be easily conducted on location, saving time and money. Three tests in particular, EC, pH, and ALKALINITY, can reveal valuable information about water quality, soil salinity, and fertilizer concentration. Our portable AGRI-METERS™ provide you with a simple, fast, and accurate means of testing these parameters.
WHAT IS ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY (EC)?
EC is the measurement of a solution’s ability to conduct an electrical current. For horticultural applications, the unit of measure is often expressed as millimhos. Absolutely pure water is actually a poor electrical conductor. It is the substances (or electrolytes) dissolved in the water which determine how conductive the solution will be.
Therefore, EC can be an excellent indicator of:
1. Water quality
2. Soil salinity
3. Fertilizer concentration
EC AND WATER QUALITY
The quality of irrigation water is one of the most critical factors influencing your growing operation. It is important to have a complete water analysis performed on a regular basis. Environmental conditions such as drought, changing seasons, heavy rainfall, etc., can cause the concentrations of dissolved salts in your water to vary significantly. These dissolved salts (i.e. calcium, sodium, etc.) can directly affect your plants’ health and, over time, render even the best soil useless.
You can monitor your overall water quality by testing its electrical conductivity with an AGRI-METER™. The higher the EC, the more salts are dissolved in your water. By comparing your EC with previous readings, you can tell if any dramatic changes have occurred. Nutrient deficiencies are possible when water is too pure (low EC) or if the relative concentrations of some nutrients are unbalanced (i.e. calcium/magnesium). On the other hand, nutrient toxicities or osmotic interferences can also be traced to water quality. Water EC of even one millimho or below can cause problems. High EC readings of more than two millimhos can suggest serious problems, and special cultural procedures may be required.
EC AND SOIL SALINITY
“Water, water, everywhere, but not a drop to drink” is an old saying that applies to your plants when the soil salinity becomes too high. Salts from irrigation water and fertilizers tend to accumulate in your soil or growing media. High soil salinity disrupts the normal osmotic balance in plant roots. In severe cases a plant will become dehydrated even when the soil is wet. Symptoms of high soil salinity include: leaf chlorosis and necrosis, leaf drop, root death, nutrient deficiency symptoms, and wilting. All too often these symptoms are not recognized as being caused by soluble salts in the growing media. Sampling your soil and testing the EC of an extract can reveal important information about a soil’s suitability and your crop’s health.
Samples should be representative of different depths and locations. An easy-to-perform extract method is available with a Soil Test Kit. A 2:1 or 5:1 water-to-soil ratio is made using the small vials provided. Soil test labs often use a method that calls for testing the EC of an extract from a thicker slurry. Therefore, you may see higher soil EC readings from a lab. It is important to standardize your sampling, extract, and testing methods. This will keep the difference between lab and field testing to a predictable factor.
EC AND FERTILIZER CONCENTRATION
You know how important fertilizer is to your plants, but do you know how accurate your fertilizer dosage is? Relying on traditional proportional methods is risky to plants and can waste expensive fertilizer. Improperly mixed fertilizer or a malfunctioning injector can lead to less than optimal results or even a disastrous loss of crops. Many fertilizer companies now recommend using a simple EC test to verify correct fertilizer concentrations. Many growers check their fertilizer injectors on a weekly basis, or they use a continuous EC monitor.
Fertilizer companies and suppliers often can provide a chart relating EC to parts per million concentrations of their various fertilizers. If one is not available for the fertilizer you use, carefully make some stock solutions at commonly used strengths and test their EC. This will give you a data base for future reference.
To test the EC of fertilizer solutions:
- Test and record the EC of the water to be mixed with the fertilizer.
- Test the conductivity of the fertilizer and water mixture.
- Subtract the water conductivity determined in #1 above.
- The resulting figure is an accurate indication of how much fertilizer is present (a higher conductivity means more fertilizer).
Important note: Interpretation of results differs from formula to formula and even among manufacturers of the same formula. Obtain the proper EC charts from the fertilizer company.
Myron L Meters sells both portable and inline instrumentation to make your fertilizer monitoring easy. Myron L AGRI-METERS™, AG-5 and AG6/PH, TH1, waterproof TECHPRO II™ models TP1, TPH1 and TH1, and waterproof ULTRAMETER II™ models 4P and 6PFCEare handheld instruments which make fertilizer testing as simple as filling a cup and pushing a button.
The Myron L 750 Series II™ EC Monitor/controllers can be used to continuously monitor your fertilizer concentration. Their “alarm” relay circuit acts as a safeguard in a fertilizer injection system or even as the main controller for your injector. A 0-10 VDC output for chart recorders or PLC (SCADA) input is standard on all monitor/controller models.
IMPORTANCE OF pH
pH, the measure of acidity or basicity, should be included in any soil or water test. It is well documented that growing media pH is critical to successful plant growth. This is especially true for new soilless mixes and hydroponics. pH affects the roots’ ability to absorb many plant nutrients. Examples include iron and manganese, which are insoluble at high pHs and toxic at low pHs. pH also directly affects the health of necessary micro-organisms in soil.
The effectiveness of pesticides and growth regulators can be severely limited by spray water pH that is either too low or too high.
It is important to note that testing the pH of irrigation water reveals only part of the story. Testing water alkalinity (bicarbonates and carbonates) is much more important than generally recognized. Alkalinity dictates how much influence the water’s pH will have on your soil and nutrient availability. In addition, alkalinity has a very great effect on the ease or difficulty of reducing the pH of water.
TweetWhen disaster strikes, people are scared and disorganized. They need resources — safe water and proper sanitation — that aren’t easy to come by in the aftermath. Without the help of humanitarian organizations to provide assistance, large populations of survivors are subject to epidemics of cholera, diarrhea, meningitis, and other diseases as they struggle to […]
When disaster strikes, people are scared and disorganized. They need resources — safe water and proper sanitation — that aren’t easy to come by in the aftermath. Without the help of humanitarian organizations to provide assistance, large populations of survivors are subject to epidemics of cholera, diarrhea, meningitis, and other diseases as they struggle to meet these basic needs.
Dr. Roddy Tempest, a leading designer and manufacturer of water purification systems has headed the efforts of public and private aid organizations, such as the United Nations and AmeriCares, in responding to people in crisis all over the world for over 15 years.
Dr. Tempest contributed his expertise and experience in such situ- ations as the aftermath of Hurricane Andrew in 1992, the Kosovar refugee crisis in the Balkans, the devastating earthquakes in Tur- key and the flood and mudslides that ravaged the coastal states of Venezuela in 1999. He has assisted in disaster relief efforts in Japan, Africa, Central America, and Taiwan, as well.
So when AmeriCares launched its water purification program for the inhabitants of Sri Lanka following the devastation of the tsunami on December 26, 2004, it turned to Dr. Tempest.
For this heroic effort, Dr. Tempest used two Ultrameter II 6P portable, handheld water testing instruments. Dr Tempest said the instruments gave him “a good, quick first-brush assessment of the possible water sources.”
The Ultrameter II reported and recorded instant precise measurements of Conductivity, Resistivity, TDS, ORP (REDOX), pH, and Temperature. But creating a livable situation for hundreds of thousands of displaced survivors wasn’t as easy as testing the water.
Water Doctor to the Rescue
From his offices in the United States, Dr. Tempest responded to the call for help by first reviewing satellite maps that showed the location of potential water sources in relation to groups of survivors, or Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). He assessed the total situation of the potential water sources, trying at a glance to deter- mine possible contamination by flooding or infiltration of seawater. Upon his arrival in Sri Lanka, Dr. Tempest worked 24 hours a day to determine a suitable survival supply of water for the IDPs. As indicated in the World Health Organization’s Environmental Health in Emergencies and Disasters, the required water per person per day is 15 liters / 3.963 gallons.
Faced with this daunting task, Dr. Tempest surveyed the land via helicopter and fixed wing aircraft to record the extent of the damage, the location of IDPs, and the viability of potential water sources. Some of the photographs reveal the mammoth challenge he had ahead of him. Debris lay everywhere, indicating the likelihood of surface water and well contamination. Filtration was a must.
Dr. Tempest then combined satellite imagery, the photographs and sketches of water sources from his survey and a list of supplies to determine which water sources would be targeted for testing.
Following World Health Organization guidelines, Dr. Tempest considered as many potential water sources as possible, not just the most obvious ones. These included surface and groundwater near the groups of IDPs and tankered or bottled water brought in from a distance – though this would not be suitable for the long- term supply. The preferred source would have been groundwater, especially for the long-term.
Ultrameter II in Action
Dr. Tempest used the Ultrameter II 6P to screen these sources for their potential disinfection and filtering.
First, Dr. Tempest considered whether or not potential water sources could be protected from pollution and secured. Any potential source water had to be filterable and sanitizable. If the water was brackish, it would require a certain treatment method. If it was high in turbidity, then it would require another. If the pH needed adjusting, then yet another. If the source water was not easily treatable, then the source had to be discarded as an option and a better alternative found.
The Ultrameter II provided Dr. Tempest with fast, reliable, accurate initial information on whether or not to pursue further testing and treatment of a potential source. Dr. Tempest used a multiparameter approach and tested for Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), pH, ORP (REDOX), and temperature (recorded with every reading taken.) He also tested for turbidity and bacteria using other instrumentation.
Initially, Dr. Tempest used a measurement of the mineral salt concentration using TDS calibrated to a sodium chloride solution and TDS calibrated to a natural water standard.
Right away Dr. Tempest knew whether or not the water was too saline or saturated to be filtered economically. If the TDS is too high, filtration systems that work by reverse osmosis can be overwhelmingly expensive to operate in a disaster area, especially considering electrical costs alone. At the very least, the systems become less efficient as the TDS increases and a burden in operation and maintenance costs. This is critical for the short-term disaster response, where Dr. Tempest has to get as much safe water to IDPs in as short amount of time as possible.
High TDS can also indicate an unacceptable level of specifically known inorganic contaminants caused by industrial pollution.
And though it is not a health consideration, high TDS water often has an unpleasant taste that deters people from using it. People may try to return to old wells or other sources of previously safe drinking water that have been contaminated in the disaster. The old source may be more trusted than one that tastes “polluted.” So even though TDS is a secondary water quality standard, it can profoundly impact whether or not the new source is acceptable.
Dr. Tempest also took instant electronic pH readings using the Ultrameter II. The pH directly affects the potential to disinfect the water. pH levels beyond 8 will require substantial increases in the amount of disinfectant required or the length of time the water must be disinfected before safe consumption. And at a pH beyond 9, a residual disinfectant is extremely difficult to maintain.
pH is also critical in the long-term disaster recovery planning. pH that is too low or too high affects water balance, as well, and can contribute to either corrosion or scaling of filtration and disinfection system components and plumbing. An electronic meter is the best choice in this application as compared to colored strips or solutions or other colorimetric methods that do not produce the accuracy required to consistently and correctly balance water and maintain proper disinfection levels. The more precisely the pH is maintained, the less costly safe water production is.
Dr. Tempest also took quick ORP (REDOX) measurements using the Ultrameter II. ORP (REDOX) is the oxidation reduction potential of the water and indicates the state of the water for gaining or losing electrons. Unlike pH, which measures the water’s ability to donate or receive hydrogen ions, ORP (REDOX) values reflect the presence of all oxidizing and reducing agents — not just acids and bases. Initially, the ORP (REDOX) value gave Dr. Tempest a rough idea of the organic load in the water. A reading of 650 mV or greater indicated good water quality that could effectively be sanitized by a minimal amount of free chlorine. A value like 250 mV indicated that the organic contaminants would significantly increase chlorine demand and thereby significantly increase operation and management costs.
ORP (REDOX) is not only a good first indicator about the viability of a water source, but it also is the best way of measuring the disinfectant present in the water after treatment has begun.
Putting It All Together
Using all of the results from these parameters and based on his knowledge of the location of IDPs in relation to potential water sources, Dr. Tempest decided which source would satisfy the needs of each specific location of groups of IDPs. Where possible, water treatment technology would be designed around the quality of the source waters tested where IDPs had gathered, since it was not practical to re-locate large groups of people to distant water sources. Unfortunately, in the case of the Tsunami in Sri Lanka, oftentimes the water closest to IDPs could not be filtered and relocation was necessary.
Dr. Tempest found after his first quick assessment of potential water sources that it was not practical to supply the IDPs in parts of the Batticoloa and Ampara Districts along the eastern coast, because the source water was too saline from seawater intrusion. With limited electricity, this
made the use of reverse osmosis or desalination equipment impractical.
He ended up settling on sites that were more inland, using source waters from man-made reservoirs. IDPs were then settled inland near the cleaner water source.
However, the water in the man-made reservoirs was heavily contaminated with toxic blue-green algae.
Dr. Tempest chose microfiltration and ultrafiltration water treatment systems in the eastern district locations, taking algae-infested water over the salt-saturated, so that treatment and operation costs would be significantly less. Dr. Tempest designed, built and commissioned 4 large transportable water treatment systems, each capable of producing over 500,000 liters/day.
Plans then continued to follow through with long-term water treatment using the Tempest Environmental Systems equipment for the Sri Lankan Ministry of Urban Development and Water Supply and their National Water Supply & Drain- age Board (NWSDB). The NWSDB has 14 Ultrameter II 6Ps in current use in Sri Lanka, which are providing continuing confidence checks to ensure system equipment remains up and running properly.
The Ultrameter II 6P is an excellent multiparameter water quality meter used by thousands of water treatment professionals. The instrument can test for pH, total dissolved solids, conductivity, resistivity, oxidation reduction potential, temperature, and has the capability of testing for free chlorine. This meter handles the job of SIX single parameter testers using one single water sample. Save 10% on the Ultrameter II 6P at MyronLMeters.com.
Tweet PoolPro gives you the most reliable, precise, affordable, multiparameter pool testing meter available for testing water quality in any pool or spa. Professional Analysis PoolPro is a comprehensive high performance tool designed to simplify pool and spa water quality control for the pool professional. Both PoolPro […]
PoolPro gives you the most reliable, precise, affordable, multiparameter pool testing meter available for testing water quality in any pool or spa.
PoolPro is a comprehensive high performance tool designed to simplify pool and spa water quality control for the pool professional. Both PoolPro models feature innovative user-friendly features and functions that make it easy to manage parameters critical to disinfection, water balance, system maintenance and compliance.
The FCE function reports FAC quickly and accurately by measuring ORP, the chemical characteristic of chlorine that directly reflects its effectivity, cross referenced with pH. Both DPD kits and colorimeters may tell the user the FAC value of the sample in the test tube, but since the chemistry of that sample is quite different from the source water being analyzed, the results are imprecisely related to actual disinfection power. The FCE function measures the real, unaltered chemistry of source water, including moment-to-moment changes in that chemistry. FCE can be used for other types of oxidizing germicides and will track the effect of additives, such as cyanuric acid, that degrade chlorine effectivity without changing the actual concentration of free available chlorine present.
In-Cell Titration Functions
The PS9TKA adds the ability to perform in-cell conductometric titrations that provides a convenient way to determine alkalinity, hardness and LSI in the field. This eliminates the need to collect and transport samples to another location for analysis. User intuitive display prompts guide you through titration procedures from start to finish. All required reagents and equipment are included in the PS9 titration kit.
Water Balance Analysis
The PS9TKA features both an LSI Calculator and an LSI Titration measurement mode. The Calculator allows you to perform what-if scenarios to predict how changes in solution parameters would affect the water balance of a system. The titration measurement function allows you to accurately calculate a saturation index value of a specific solution to determine whether the solution is balanced, scaling or corrosive.
Hardness Unit Conversion
The Hardness and LSI Titrations and LSI Calculator functions allow you to set the hardness unit preference to either grains of hardness or ppm CaCO3 according to your needs.
System Validation & Calibration
Myron L’s PoolPro provides a fast, precise, easy-to-use method of obtaining Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP or REDOX) mV readings to check the true level of effectiveness of ALL sanitizers in any pool or spa. ORP objectively and precisely measures sanitizer ability to burn up, or oxidize, organic matter in the water. ORP can only be determined by an electronic instrument. PoolPro ORP mV readings serve as a necessary check to ensure automatic ORP control systems are working properly. PoolPro also provides independent readings for recalibration and to detect system failure.
Saltwater Chlorine Generation
PoolPro provides a convenient one-touch test for Mineral/Salt concentration. This is ideal for saltwater systems where manual testing with separate instrumentation is necessary to ensure the proper amount of sodium chloride is present for chlorine generation in quantities specified for microbial disinfection. PoolPro can also be used to recalibrate equipment as part of regular maintenance.
The optional bluDock™ accessory package is an integrated data solution for your record keeping requirements, eliminating the need for additional hardware, wires and hassle. Because the user never touches the data, there is little opportunity for data tampering and human error. bluDock software has an easy to use interface with user intuitive functions for storing, sorting and exporting data.
PoolPro is lightweight, portable, buoyant, waterproof, easy-to-calibrate, and easy-to-use. Simply rinse and fill the cell cup by dipping the PoolPro in the water, then press the button of the parameter you wish to measure. You immediately get a standard, numerical digital readout — eliminating all subjectivity. And you can store up to 100 date-time-stamped readings in PoolPro’s non-volatile memory.
Myron L Meters
PoolMeter™ is a high quality analog instrument that measures TDS/NaCl/ Salt. Myron L meters are so reliable, some have been in continuous use for over 45 years.
TweetAll Myron L meters are factory calibrated with NIST traceable Standard Solutions having specific conductivity/ppm values. MyronL Standard Solutions are made under strictly controlled conditions using reagent grade salts. These salts are mixed with deionized water having a resistivity of at least 5 megohms-cm purity. Myron L Standard Solutions have an accuracy of +1% based […]
All Myron L meters are factory calibrated with NIST traceable Standard Solutions having specific conductivity/ppm values. MyronL Standard Solutions are made under strictly controlled conditions using reagent grade salts. These salts are mixed with deionized water having a resistivity of at least 5 megohms-cm purity.
Myron L Standard Solutions have an accuracy of +1% based on values published in the International Critical Tables and traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. NIST certificates , while not available on Ultrapens, are available on most other Myron L meters and solutions. Check the product page for the NIST certificate option. See example below:
Regular use of these solutions is recommended to ensure specified instrument accuracy. Frequency of conductivity recalibration depends upon use, but once every month should be sufficient for an instrument used daily. pH models, depending upon use, should be recalibrated with pH 7 Buffer every 1-2 weeks, and checked with pH 4 and/or 10 Buffers at similar intervals. pH Sensor Storage Solution is recommended for keeping the pH sensor hydrated. Myron L solutions are available in quart/1 ltr., gallon/3,8 ltr. and 2 oz./59 ml plastic bottles, ready to use.
Below is the official NIST traceability policy from the website of the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
The mission of NIST is to promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve our quality of life. To help meet the measurement and standards needs of U.S. industry and the nation, NIST provides calibrations, standard reference materials, standard reference data, test methods, proficiency evaluation materials1, measurement quality assurance programs, and laboratory accreditation services that assist a customer in establishing traceability of measurement results.
Metrological traceability requires the establishment of an unbroken chain of calibrations to specified references. NIST assures the traceability of measurement results that NIST itself provides, either directly or through an official NIST program or collaboration. Other organizations are responsible for establishing the traceability of their own results to those of NIST or other specified references. NIST has adopted this policy statement to document the NIST role with respect to traceability.
Statement of Policy
To support the conduct of its mission and to ensure that the use of its name, products, and services is consistent with its authority and responsibility, NIST adopts for its own use and recommends for use by others the definition of metrological traceability2 provided in the most recent version of the International Vocabulary of Metrology: “property of a measurement result whereby the result can be related to a reference through a documented unbroken chain of calibrations, each contributing to the measurement uncertainty.” (International Vocabulary of Metrology – Basic and General concepts and Associated Terms (VIM), definition 2.41, see Reference ).
To support the conduct of its mission and to ensure that the use of its name, products, and services is consistent with its authority and responsibility, NIST:
1. Adopts for its own use and recommends for use by others the definition of traceability provided in the most recent version of the International vocabulary of metrology – Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM): “property of a measurement result whereby the result can be related to a reference through a documented unbroken chain of calibrations, each contributing to the measurement uncertainty..” .
2. Establishes metrological traceability of the results of its own measurements and of results provided to customers in NISTcalibration and measurement certificates, operating in accordance with the NIST Quality System for Measurement Services.
3. Asserts that providing support for a claim of metrological traceability of the result of a measurement is the responsibility of theprovider of that result, whether that provider is NIST or another organization; and that assessing the validity of such a claim is the responsibility of the user of that result.
4. Communicates, especially where claims expressing or implying the contrary are made, that NIST does not define, specify,assure, or certify metrological traceability of the results of measurements except those that NIST itself provides, either directly or through an official NIST program or collaboration. (See also NIST Administrative Manual, Subchapter 5.03, NIST Policy on Use of its Name in Advertising.)
5. Collaborates on development of standard definitions, interpretations, and recommended practices with organizations that have authority and responsibility for variously defining, specifying, assuring, or certifying metrological traceability.
6. Develops and disseminates technical information on traceability and conducts coordinated outreach programs on issues of traceability and related requirements.
7. Assigns responsibility for oversight of implementation of the NIST policy on metrological traceability to the NIST Measurement Services Advisory Group (MSAG).
1 Underlined terms are defined in III Glossary of Terms in the Supplementary Materials section following.
2 The full term, “metrological traceability” is preferred when there is a risk of confusion with other meanings of the abbreviated term “traceability”, which is sometimes used to refer to the “history” or “trace” of an item. The abbreviated term is also used in this document to improve readability, since it is clear that “metrological traceability” is meant in every case.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce. Original found here: http://www.nist.gov/traceability/nist_traceability_policy_external.cfm
TweetWHAT IS ORP? Oxidation Reduction Potential or Redox is the activity or strength of oxidizers and reducers in relation to their concentration. Oxidizers accept electrons, reducers lose electrons. Examples of oxidizers are: chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, bromine, ozone, and chlorine dioxide. Examples of reducers are sodium sulfite, sodium bisulfate and hydrogen sulfide. Like acidity and alkalinity, […]
WHAT IS ORP?
Oxidation Reduction Potential or Redox is the activity or strength of oxidizers and reducers in relation to their concentration. Oxidizers accept electrons, reducers lose electrons. Examples of oxidizers are: chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, bromine, ozone, and chlorine dioxide. Examples of reducers are sodium sulfite, sodium bisulfate and hydrogen sulfide. Like acidity and alkalinity, the increase of one is at the expense of the other.
A single voltage is called the Oxidation-Reduction Potential, where a positive voltage shows a solution attracting electrons (oxidizing agent). For instance, chlorinated water will show a positive ORP value whereas sodium sulfite (a reducing agent) loses electrons and will show a negative ORP value.
ORP is measured in millivolts (mV), with no correction for solution temperature. Like pH, it is not a measurement of concentration directly, but of activity level. In a solution of only one active component, ORP indicates concentration. As with pH, a very dilute solution will take time to accumulate a measurable charge.
An ORP sensor uses a small platinum surface to accumulate charge without reacting chemically. That charge is measured relative to the solution, so the solution “ground” voltage comes from the reference junction – the same type used by a pH sensor.
HISTORY OF ORP
ORP electrodes were first studied at Harvard University in 1936. These studies showed a strong correlation of ORP and bacterial activity. These tests were confirmed by studies on drinking water and swimming pools in other areas of the world. In 1971 ORP (700 mV) was adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a standard for drinking water. In 1982 the German Standards Agency adopted the ORP (750 mV) for public pools and in 1988 the National Swimming Pool Institute adopted ORP (650 mV) for public spas.
WHERE IS ORP USED?
As you can tell by the previous paragraphs, ORP is used for drinking water, swimming pools and spas. However, ORP is also used for cooling tower disinfection, groundwater remediation, bleaching, cyanide destruction, chrome reductions, metal etching, fruit and vegetable disinfection and dechlorination.
In test after test on poliovirus, E. coli, and other organisms, a direct correlation between ORP and the rate of inactivation was determined. It is, therefore, possible to select an individual ORP value, expressed in millivolts, at which a predictable level of disinfection will be achieved and sustained regardless of variations in either oxidant demand or oxidant concentration. Thus, individual ORP targets, expressed in millivolts, can be determined for each application, which will result in completely reliable disinfection of pathogens, oxidation of organics, etc. Any level of oxidation for any purpose can be related to a single ORP number which, if maintained, will provide utterly consistent results at the lowest possible dosage.
WHY USE ORP?
ORP is a convenient measure of the oxidizer’s or reducer’s ability to perform a chemical task. ORP is not only valid over a wide pH range, but it is also a rugged electrochemical test, which can easily be accomplished using in-line and handheld instrumentation. It is by far a more consistent and reliable measurement than say chlorine alone.
LIMITATIONS FOR ORP
As with all testing, ORP has certain limitations. The speed of response is directly related to the exchange current density which is derived from concentration, the oxidation reduction system, and the electrode. If the ORP of a sample is similar to the ORP of the electrode, the speed will be diminished.
Carryover is also a possible problem when checking strong oxidizers or reducers, and rinsing well will help greatly.
Although a better indicator of bactericidal activity, ORP cannot be used as a direct indicator of the residual of an oxidizer due to the effect of pH and temperature on the reading. ORP can be correlated to a system by checking the oxidizer or reducer in a steady state system with a wet test, and measuring pH. If the system stays within the confines of this steady state parameter (usually maintained by in- line or continuous control), a good correlation can be made. The best recommendation for ORP is to use wet tests, and over three test periods correlate the ORP values to those test parameters.
FREE CHLORINE CONVERSION USING ORP
The most ubiquitous and cost-effective sanitizing agent used in disinfection systems is chlorine. When chlorine is used as the sanitizer, free chlorine measurements are required to ensure residual levels high enough for ongoing bactericidal activity. Myron L meters accurately convert ORP measurements to free chlorine based on the understanding of the concentrations of the forms of free chlorine at a given pH and temperature. The conversion is accurate when chlorine is the only oxidizing/reducing agent in solution and pH is stable between 5 and 9. This pH range fits most applications because pH is usually maintained such that the most effective form of free chlorine, hypochlorous acid, exists in the greatest concentration with respect to other variables such as human tolerance.
MYRON L METERS
Myron L offers a variety of handheld instruments and in-line Monitor/controllers that may be used to measure, monitor and/or control ORP. The latest is the Ultrapen PT3, ORP/Redox and Temperature Pen. The Ultrameter III™ 9PTKA, Ultrameter II™ 6PFCE, PoolPro™ PS6FCE and PS9TK, and D-6 Digital Dialysate Meter™ are multi-parameter handheld instruments with ORP and FCE free chlorine measuring capabilities. These instruments also have the capability to measure conductivity, TDS, resistivity, pH, mineral/salt concentration and temperature, making them the preferred instruments for all water treatment professionals. The 720 Series II Monitor/controllers are an excellent choice for continuous in-line measurements.
For additional information, visit us at MyronLMeters.com.