Archive for May, 2013

Conductivity as a Function of Location –

Posted by 26 May, 2013

TweetHypothesis: Does the time of year affect the conductivity of stagnant water in a given location? Abstract: We decided to test the conductivity levels of the water at Flat Rock Brook. If the conductivity levels are higher, it might imply higher total dissolved solid levels. We would like to see if the conductivity level changes during seasons […]

Hypothesis: Does the time of year affect the conductivity of stagnant water in a given location? Abstract: We decided to test the conductivity levels of the water at Flat Rock Brook. If the conductivity levels are higher, it might imply higher total dissolved solid levels. We would like to see if the conductivity level changes during seasons with snowfall versus seasons without snowfall. Background:

  • Independent Variable: Time of Year (Season)
  • Independent Variable: Location
  • Dependent Variable: Conductivity Level (mg/L TDS)

The purpose of the experiment is to test the change in conductivity level throughout the year (on a seasonal basis) in various locations. While doing this experiment, it is important to keep in mind these three things:

  1. How does conductivity vary at any of the given sites during a given season.(1)
  2. What human influence might have an impact on the conductivity of the water at any given part of the year.(1)
  3. Why might this change affect the ability of organisms to live in the given test sites.(1)

This is important to Flat Rock Brook because the data could be used to do several things. For example, the change in conductivity may change the organic life in the water, thus changing the ability to safely drink it. The change may impact the ability of organisms to grow in the water, and it may change the reactive nature of the water. Conductivity can be measured by the total dissolved solids in the water. Total Dissolves Solids include the number of mineral and salt impurities in the water. (1) Ultimately, the number of minerals and salts determines how many ions in mg/L. The impurities in the water can include runoff from roads, wastewater from industrial plants, and soils and rocks. (1) The amount of total dissolved solids in the water can have a physiological effect on plants and animals living in the ponds. (2) Conductivity can be used as a way of noting changes in water conditions over short periods of time. (2) Also, the level of total dissolved solvents in water can have an effect of the ability of habitat-forming plants to grow, thus disrupting the presence of certain species. (2) Materials:

  • GPS Navigator by Magellan: We used the GPS as a way to mark off specific testing sites at McFadden’s Pond and Quarry Pond, in order to test in a precise and consistent location
  • pH/Conductivity Probe: We used the pH/Conductivity Probe to test the level of conductivity in the various locations. The conductivity was measured in mg/L (TDS), and microsiemens (µS), but due to the difficult nature of working with microsiemens, we chose to work primarily with mg/L(TDS).
  • Distilled Water: We used the distilled water to wash off the probe in between tests in order to maintain accurate readings without tainted results.
  • Map of Flat Rock Brook: We used the map of Flat Rock Brook in order to find locations from which we could test conductivity levels of water.
  • Vernier conductivity probe used with a Lab Pro interface: We used this for our May data in order to get a more accurate reading. By taking samples from Flat Rock Brook, we connected this probe to Logger Pro and recorded the conductivity which was also measured in TDS. NOTE: We used the conductivity data from these readings in our graphs and overall analysis because it provided a more accurate measurement













Methods: *Adapted from Electrical Conductivity Protocol Used by University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Colorado State University, and NASA. (Water Temperature was not recorded.)

  • Record water temperature
  • Pour water sample into two containers (or measure in water body)
  • Rinse electrodes with distilled water, blot dry
  • Place meter in first container, 2-3 seconds
  • Remove meter, shake gently, and place in second

container, 1 minute (Do not rinse with distilled water)

  • Record value when stabilized
  • Repeat measurement with new sample water, twice
  • Average three measurements and check for accuracy

Original Protocol can be found at this link*:


Cleaning off the conductivity probe before testing the water. (Figure 2)


Testing the conductivity of the pond (Figure 3)


Results: Fall (November) : -Quarry Pond:

  • .9 mg/L

-McFadden’s Pond (site A)*:

  • 3.1 mg/L

-McFadden’s Pond (site B)*:

  • 3.05 mg/L

Spring (May): (with ph/conductivity probe) -Quarry Pond:

  • .83 mg/L

-McFadden’s Pond (Site A):

  • 2.95 mg/L

-McFadden’s Pond (Site B):

  • 2.02 mg/L

Spring (May): (LoggerPro Data) -Quarry Pond:

  • .8 mg/L

-McFadden’s Pond (Site A):

  • 3.1 mg/L

-McFadden’s Pond (Site B):

  • 2.1 mg/L

Data Graph for Quarry Pond (Figure 4)

Data Graph for McFadden’s Pond Site A (Figure 5)

Data Graph for McFadden’s Pond Site B (Figure 6)

Data Graph for all three locations (Figure 7)


Discussion: Throughout our research, there was a general shift in the conductivity level in each site we tested. At Quarry Pond, the total dissolved solids reduced from .9 mg/L to .8 mg/L from November to May. This shift can be seen in the graph shown in Figure 4. McFadden’s Pond Site B also showed a substantial shift between the November and May readings, from 3.05 mg/L to 2.1 mg/L, as seen in Figure 6. Despite these significant changes, Site A at McFadden’s Pond did not change. This could potentially be due to its close proximity to moving water. A subtle, unnoticed under-current may have existed which may have caused the water to be mixed, and therefore diluted. The figures for this measurement can be seen in Figure 5.

The changes in conductivity at Quarry Pond may be the result of runoff from the parking lot and the roads in close proximity to it. Quarry Pond, unlike the other locations was close enough to a road that run-off affects the level of total dissolved solids. Although there was a significant change in conductivity between readings, the total dissolved solids were much lower than that of McFadden’s Pond. This may explain why the presence of algae was much higher in Quarry Pond than in McFadden’s Pond. McFadden’s Pond’s conductivity may have been higher due to a larger level of mineral deposits from soil runoff. One possible explanation for this shift in conductivity is the dilution of total dissolved solids in pond water due to rainfall and melting water from snow.

Conclusion: When comparing conductivity of water at a given point of time during the year, it is clear that there are noticeable differences. During the Fall and Winter, when there is more soil and road runoff, the conductivity level is higher. Conversely, during the spring, when there is more rainwater and melted snow and ice to dilute the ponds, the conductivity level drops. This would suggest that during fall and winter, the conditions of the pond are noticeably different. This suggests the possibility that there may be a shift in population from one group of organisms to another on a seasonal basis. Knowledge of these changes may help to explain why animals would migrate to a different habitat during different seasons. Because of the nature of soil runoff and road runoff, the level of Total Dissolved Solids in the water changes on a seasonal basis, and with that, the conductivity changes as well. In conclusion, conductivity does change over time of year in stagnant water, primarily because of external conditions such as runoff and wastewater.


(1)The GLOBE Program, “Electrical Conductivity Protocol.” Hydro-Electrical Conductivity. Ed. UCAR, Colorado State University, NASA.


We used the Power Point file linked to this page as our primary source of background information as well as a standard protocol for our field tests.

(2)Conductivity And Water Quality.

<[[|<span]] We used this website as our second source of data for finding out environmental impacts of change in conductivity and overall water quality. (Note: No Author, Publisher or Editor could be found for this web page.) __ *Site A is to the right of Mystery Bridge *Site B is to the left of Mystery Bridge *Note, this protocol was implemented both in the field and in a lab dependent on the time the data was collected *If the web page is difficult to view, a link to a .ppt file is available at the top of the page. The protocol can be found on slide #12.

Study authors: Margot Bennett and Rob Schwartz

Contributions to are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0 License


Comments Off on Conductivity as a Function of Location – Categories : Case Studies & Application Stories, Science and Industry Updates

Water Quality Testing in RO Systems –

Posted by 10 May, 2013

Tweet Water quality testing is vital to the design of an efficient, cost-effective RO system, and is one of the best ways to preserve system life and performance. Using an accurate Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) measurement to assess the system load prevents costly mistakes up front. The TDS measurement gives users the information they need […]


Water quality testing is vital to the design of an efficient, cost-effective RO system, and is one of the best ways to preserve system life and performance.

Using an accurate Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) measurement to assess the system load prevents costly mistakes up front. The TDS measurement gives users the information they need to determine whether or not pretreatment is required and the type of membrane/s to select. Ultrameter™ and ULTRAPEN PT1™ Series TDS instruments feature the unique ability to select from 3 industry standard solution models: 442 Natural Water™ NaCl; and KCl. Choosing the model that most closely matches the characteristics of source water yields measurements accurate enough to check and calibrate TDS monitor/controllers that can help alert to system failures, reducing downtime and increasing productivity. The same instruments provide a fast and accurate test for permeate TDS quality control. Measuring concentrate values and analyzing quality trends lets users accurately determine membrane usage according to the manufacturer’s specifications so they can budget consumption correctly. These daily measurements are invaluable in detecting problems with system performance where changes in the ionic concentration of post-filtration streams can indicate scaling or fouling. System maintenance is generally indicated if there is either a 10-15% drop in performance or permeate quality as measured by TDS.

Thin-film composite membranes degrade when exposed to chlorine. In systems where chlorine is used for microbiological control, the chlorine is usually removed by carbon adsorption or sodium bisulfite addition before membrane filtration. The presence of any chlorine in such systems will at best reduce the life of the membrane, thus, a target of 0 ppm free chlorine in the feedwater is desirable.

ORP gives the operator the total picture of all chemicals in solution that have oxidizing or reducing potential including chlorine, bromine, chloramines, chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid, iodine, ozone, etc. However, ORP can be used to monitor and control free chlorine in systems where chlorine is the only sanitizer used. ORP over +300 mV is generally considered undesirable for membranes. Check manufacturer’s specifications for tolerable ORP levels.

An inline ORP monitor/controller placed ahead of the RO unit to automatically monitor for trends and breakthroughs coupled with spot checks by a portable instrument will prevent equipment damage and failure. Myron L 720 Series II™ ORP monitor/controllers can be configured with bleed and feed switches as well as visible and audible alarms.

Ultrameter and ULTRAPEN portable handhelds are designed for fast field testing and are accurate enough to calibrate monitor/controllers. Our measurement methods are objective and have superior accuracy and convenience when compared to colorimetric methods where determination of equivalence points is subjective and can be skewed by colored or turbid solutions.

Monitoring pH of the source water will allow users to make adjustments that optimize the performance of antiscalants, corrosion inhibitors and anti-foulants. Using a 720 II Series Monitor/controller to maintain pH along with an Ultrameter Series or ULTRAPEN PT2™ handheld to spot check pH values will reduce consumption of costly chemicals and ensure their efficacy.

Most antiscalants used in chemical system maintenance specify a Langelier Saturation Index maximum value. Some chemical manufacturers and control systems develop their own proprietary methods for determining a saturation index based on solubility constants in a defined system. However, LSI is still used as the predominant scaling indicator because calcium carbonate is present in most water. Using a portable Ultrameter III 9PTKA™ provides a simple method for determining LSI to ensure the chemical matches the application.

The Ultrameter III 9PTKA computes LSI from independent titrations of alkalinity and hardness along with electrometric measurements of pH and temperature. Using the 9PTKA LSI calculator, alterations to the water chemistry can be determined to achieve the desired LSI. Usually, pH is the most practical adjustment. If above 7, acid additions are made to achieve the pH value in the target LSI. Injections are made well ahead of the RO unit to ensure proper mixing and avoid pH hotspots. A Myron L 720 Series II pH Monitor/controller will automatically detect and divert solution with pH outside the range of tolerance for the RO unit. ULTRAPEN PT2, TechPro II and Ultrameter Series instruments can be used to spot check and calibrate the monitor/controller as part of routine maintenance and to ensure uniform mixing.

Water hardness values indicate whether or not ion exchange beds are required in pretreatment. Checking hardness values directly after the softening process with the Ultrameter III 9PTKA ensures proper functioning and anticipates the regeneration schedule.

Alkalinity is not only important in its effect on the scaling tendency of solution, but on pH maintenance. Additions of lime are used to buffer pH during acid injection. Use a 9PTKA to measure alkalinity values for fast field analysis where other instrumentation is too cumbersome to be practical.

Though testing and monitoring pressure is a good way to evaluate system requirements and performance over time, measuring other water quality parameters can help pinpoint problems when troubleshooting. For example, if the pressure differential increases over the second stage, the most likely cause is scaling by insoluble salts. This means that any degradation in performance is likely due to the dissolved solids in the feed. Using a 9PTKA to evaluate LSI and calculate parameter adjustments is a simple way to troubleshoot a costly problem.

Myron L Meters saves you 10% on all Ultrameters and Ultrapens when you order online at, where you can find the complete selection of Myron L meters, including the Ultrameter III 9PTKA.

Original story from International Filtration News V 32, no. 2


Comments Off on Water Quality Testing in RO Systems – Categories : Application Advice, Case Studies & Application Stories, Technical Tips

Myron L Meters Water Industry Resources –

Posted by 7 May, 2013

TweetSoon Myron L Meters will be adding a Water Industry Resources page to  The page will feature links to water industry events, water industry associations, and related technical resources.  Please look over our draft page below and  suggest anything we might be missing. Be sure to check back with us periodically for new features […]

Soon Myron L Meters will be adding a Water Industry Resources page to  The page will feature links to water industry events, water industry associations, and related technical resources.  Please look over our draft page below and  suggest anything we might be missing. Be sure to check back with us periodically for new features and changes, including our upcoming Myron L Meters Users Forum.

Myron L Meters Water Industry Resources



Manuals and MSDS


Video Channel


Application Bulletins


Users Group


Water Industry News






Water Science and Conservation


Water Conservation News – Science Daily


U.S. Department of the Interior | Bureau of Reclamation


Environmental Protection Agency


Clean Water Network


Soil and Water Conservation Society


Partnership for Water Conservation


Nature Conservancy Conservation Gateway



Water Products Suppliers


Pumps:                                  PulsafeederPumps



Storage Tanks:                       PeabodyStorageTanks



Water Industry Events
Apr 14 – Apr 18, 2013

Miscellaneous | Miscellaneous

23th Annual Practical Membrane / Filtration & Separations Technologies Short Course

College Station, TX
Apr 16 – Apr 18, 2013

AWWA Section | Section Conference

New York Section 2013 Annual Conference

Saratoga Springs, NY
Apr 16 – Apr 18, 2013

Miscellaneous | Seminar


Chicago, IL
Apr 22 – Apr 24, 2013

AWWA | Seminar

SOLD OUT Financial Management Seminar, San Diego, California

San Diego, CA
Apr 23 – Apr 25, 2013

AWWA Section | Section Conference

Pennsylvania Section 2013 Annual Conference

Hershey, PA
Apr 25 – Apr 25, 2013

Miscellaneous | Miscellaneous

Native Landscape Design for Stormwater

Milwaukee, WI
Apr 29 – May 02, 2013

AWWA Section | Annual Meeting

Alaska Section 2013 Annual Conference

Anchorage, AK
May 01 – May 03, 2013

AWWA Section | Section Conference

Arizona Section 2013 Annual Conference

Glendale, AZ
May 06 – May 07, 2013

Miscellaneous | Miscellaneous

17th Annual Water Reuse & Desalination Research Conference

Phoenix, AZ
May 06 – May 08, 2013

Miscellaneous | Speciality Conferences

2013 ABPA Education Conference & Trade Show

Phoenix, AZ
May 06 – May 10, 2013

Miscellaneous | Miscellaneous

2013 West Regional Conference

Seattle, WA
May 07 – May 09, 2013

AWWA Section | Annual Meeting

Montana Section 2013 Annual Conference

Great Falls, MT
May 07 – May 07, 2013

Miscellaneous | Speciality Conferences

SCMA SWAT Training For Operators Workshop

Granbury, TX
May 08 – May 10, 2013

AWWA Section | Annual Meeting

Hawaii Section 2013 Annual Conference

Honolulu, HI


May 08 – May 10, 2013

AWWA Section | Section Conference

Pacific Northwest Section 2013 Annual Conference

Spokane, WA
May 08 – May 10, 2013

Miscellaneous | Seminar

Inspection and Assessment of Dams

Seattle, WA
May 09 – May 09, 2013

Miscellaneous | Miscellaneous

Watershed Planning – Putting the Pieces Together

Milwaukee, WI
May 09 – May 09, 2013

Miscellaneous | Miscellaneous

Smart Water for Smart Cities – A Workshop

Ellicot City, MD
May 09 – May 09, 2013

Miscellaneous | Speciality Conferences

SCMA I Scream, You Scream, We All Scream For Membranes Workshop

Tuttle, OK
May 16 – May 17, 2013

Miscellaneous | Annual Meeting

Water and Agriculture

Palos Verdes, CA
May 19 – May 22, 2013

AWWA Section | Section Conference

West Virginia Section 2013 Annual Conference

Daniels, WV
May 20 – May 20, 2013

Miscellaneous | Speciality Conferences

AMTA/SEDA Joint Technology Transfer Workshop “Application of Membrane Technologies in the Chesapeake Region”

Chesapeake, VA
May 21 – May 23, 2013

Miscellaneous | Miscellaneous

Appalachian Underground Corrosion Short Course (AUCSC 2013)

Morgantown, WV
May 22 – May 24, 2013

AWWA Section | Annual Meeting

Connecticut Section 2013 Annual Conference

Saratoga Springs, NY
May 30 – May 30, 2013

Miscellaneous | Miscellaneous

Water Law for Sustainable Management

Milwaukee, WI
Jun 09 – Jun 13, 2013

AWWA | Annual Meeting

2013 Annual Conference & Exposition

Denver, CO
Jun 24 – Jun 25, 2013

Miscellaneous | Speciality Conferences

2013 AWRA Summer Specialty Conference Environmental Flows

Hartford, CT
Jul 09 – Jul 10, 2013

AWWA | Speciality Conferences

NWMOA MBR Operator Training Workshop

Pendleton, OR
Aug 04 – Aug 04, 2013

Miscellaneous | Annual Meeting

Association of Clean Water Administrators

Sante Fe, NM
Sep 08 – Sep 12, 2013

Miscellaneous | Speciality Conferences

Dam Safety 2013

Providence, RI
Sep 09 – Sep 12, 2013

AWWA Section | Annual Meeting

Virginia Section 2013 Annual Conference

Richmond, VA
Sep 10 – Sep 13, 2013

AWWA Section | Section Conference

Michigan Section 2013 Annual Conference

Lansing, MI
Sep 11 – Sep 13, 2013

AWWA Section | Section Conference

Intermountain Section AWWA

Sun Valley, Idaho
Sep 15 – Sep 18, 2013

Miscellaneous | Symposium

North American Membrane Society 23rd Annual Meeting

Sep 15 – Sep 18, 2013

Miscellaneous | Symposium

28th Annual WateReuse Symposium

Denver, Colorado
Sep 15 – Sep 18, 2013

AWWA | Speciality Conferences

2013 DSS/Emergency Preparedness and Security Conf.

Itasca, IL
Sep 22 – Sep 25, 2013

Miscellaneous | Annual Meeting

World Congress 2013

Las Vegas, NV
Sep 23 – Sep 25, 2013

Miscellaneous | Annual Meeting

NWMOA 1st Annual Symposium – “Getting the Best from Your Membrane Treatment Plant”

Vancouver, WA
Sep 29 – Oct 03, 2013

Miscellaneous | Speciality Conferences

84th Annual Education and Business Conference

Kansas City, MO
Oct 01 – Oct 03, 2013

Miscellaneous | Speciality Conferences

NRWA WaterPro Conference

Seattle, WA
Oct 02 – Oct 04, 2013

Miscellaneous | Speciality Conferences

6th WaterSmart Innovations Conference and Exposition

Las Vegas, NV
Oct 13 – Oct 15, 2013

AWWA Section | Section Conference

Alabama-Mississippi Annual Conference

Tunica Resorts, MS
Nov 03 – Nov 07, 2013

AWWA | Speciality Conferences

2013 Water Quality Technology Conference

Long Beach, CA
Nov 04 – Nov 08, 2013

Miscellaneous | Miscellaneous

2013 Irrigation Show & Education Conference




Water Industry Associations


American Fisheries Society

  1. The Chlorine Institute
  2. Conservation International
  3. Environmental Assessment Association
  4. Environmental Council of the States
  5. Environmental Law Institute
  6. The Groundwater Foundation
  7. Ground Water Protection Council
  8. Institute of Professional Environmental Practice

10.Irrigation Association

11.NARUC Committee on Water

12.National Association of Conservation Districts

13.National Association of Counties

14.National Association of Environmental Professionals

15.National Association of Pipe Fabricators

16.National Association of Water Companies

17.National Council for Science and the Environment

18.National Drinking Water Clearinghouse

19.National Drought Mitigation Center

20.National Federation of Municipal Analysts

21.National Fire Protection Association

22.National Ground Water Association
National Institute for the Environment

23.National Institutes for Water Resources

24.National Rural Water Association

25.National Small Flows Clearinghouse

26.National Water Research Institute – Canada.

27.National Water Resources Association

28.Renewable Natural Resources Foundation

29.Soil and Water Conservation Society

30.State Water Resources Research Institutes

31.Water and Wastewater Equipment Manufacturers Association



American Filtration and Separations Society (AFS)
The premier organization in North America dedicated to R&D, problem solutions and technology transfer in fluid-particle separation for the benefit of industrial processes, individual health and a clean environment.


American Ground Water Trust is a nonprofit educational organization dedicated to promoting efficient and effective ground water management and provides educational information about ground water issues that are important to well


American Institute of Hydrology


American Public Works Association


American Society of Irrigation Consultants


American Water Resources Association


American Water Works Association (AWWA)


Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies


Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies


Association of State Drinking Water Administrators


Association of State and Interstate Water Pollution Control Administrators


Association of Water Technologies


AWWA Research Foundation

California Water Operators Association (CWOA)
A professional association dedicated to helping water and wastewater operators in California thru education, public policy, wages, benefits, training.

Caribbean Water and Wastewater Association (CWWA)
The CWWA encourages the study, research and development in water supply and wastewater disposal, and the publication of the results of such work, so as to provide for appropriate and dynamic technological advances in the Caribbean.

Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association, Region 8
One of the leading water and wastewater professional training organizations in Florida for over 5,000 professionals that work in the public, private and government utilities.

Instrument Society of America (ISA)
The international society for measurement, control, instrumentation and automation.


International Bottled Water Association is the authoritative source of information about all types of bottled waters.

Regional Bottled Water Associations:
NEBWA – Northeastern Bottled Water Association
SEBWA – Southeastern Bottled Water Association
MABWA – Mid-America Bottled Water Association
CSBWA – Central States Bottled Water Association
NWBWA – Northwestern Bottled Water Association
CBWA – Canadian Bottled Water Association

International Private Water Association (IPWA)
Promoting private sector participation in water utilities.

The Irrigation Association (IA)
Formed more than 50 years ago to improve the products and practices used to manage water resources and to help shape the worldwide business environment of the irrigation industry.

Kentucky Water & Wastewater Operators Association (KWWOA)
A not-for-profit association organized in the fall of 1958.  The KWWOA was created by a group of operators from the drinking and wastewater industry.

Maine Lagoon Systems
The mission of the Maine Lagoon Systems website is to promote clean water resources through the enhanced communication of wastewater lagoon system operators in the state of Maine and beyond.

Maine Wastewater Control Association (MWCA)
An association of over 650 members consisting of municipal and industrial operators, consultants, students, and regulatory officials. The purpose is to facilitate communication of ideas and the preservation of Maine’s waterways.

Measurement, Control and Automation Association   (MCAA)

NAWC (National Association of Water Companies)


National Ground Water Association (NGWA) is a trade association for ground water professionals including well drillers, pump installers, geologists and other scientists to promote responsible development, use and management of ground water resources.


National Institute for the Environment


National Institutes for Water Resources


National Rural Water Association
National Small Flows Clearinghouse
Helping America’s small communities meet their wastewater needs.


National Water Research Institute – Canada.


National Water Resources Association
Northeast Rural Water Association (NeRWA)
Started in 1982, a nonprofit association of water and wastewater systems in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont. Among its many services, We offer training and onsite technical assistance to operators, managers, owners and boards.

South Carolina Rural Water Association (SCRWA)
Providing free training to water and wastewater operators in South Carolina, through cooperative agreements with NRWA and USEPA. Offering vendors opportunities to network with utility companies in our state. Offering utilities assistance with water & wastewater issues from an operational to a managerial level.


Water and Wastewater Equipment Manufacturers Association

Water Design-Build Council (WDBC)
The Water Design-Build Council supports the development and rehabilitation of the nation’s municipal water and wastewater systems by using the design-build project delivery method.  Our mission is to promote best practices for design-build to facilitate productive and collaborative relationships between service providers and governments.


Water Education Foundation


Water Environment Federation (WEF)
Founded in 1928, the Water Environment Federation (WEF) is a not-for-profit technical and educational organization with members from varied disciplines who work toward the WEF vision of preservation and enhancement of the global water environment.


Water Environment Research Foundation


Water Environment WEB – Water Environment Federation


Water Industry Council


Water Organizations – [UWIN]


Water Quality Association (WQA)
A not-for-profit international trade association representing the residential, commercial, industrial, and small community water treatment industry. WQA maintains a close dialogue with other organizations representing different aspects of the water industry in order to best serve consumers, government officials, and industry members.




Regional Water Quality Associations:
EWQA – Eastern Water Quality Association
FWQA – Florida Water Quality Association
Missouri WQA – Missouri Water Quality Association
PWQA – Pacific Water Quality Association
TWQA – Texas Water Quality Association




Water Utility Benchmarking Association


The Watershed Management Council


Industry Publications:

Water Quality Products

Water Technology

Water Conditioning and Purification

Food Processing Magazine

ALN Magazine

The Bottled Water Reporter


Journal of Hydroinformatics

Journal of Water and Health

Journal of Water and Climate Change

Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination

Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development

Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-AQUA

Hydrology Research


Water Asset Management International

Water Practice and Technology

Water Policy

Water Quality Research Journal of Canada

Water Research

Water Science and Technology

Water Science and Technology: Water Supply


Water Systems Council is a national nonprofit organization focused solely on household wells and small water well systems.

Water Utility Management International

Water Intelligence Online
Government Information Sources

EPA Safe Drinking Water Act List of Primary and Secondary Contaminants, Health Effects, and Sources:


US Water Partnership: Department of State


US Department of the Interior: Water Challenges


US Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resources Development


Water Resources of the United States


USGS Water Data for the Nation


National Water Quality Assessment Program


US Bureau of Reclamation


United States Environmental Protection Agency Water Resources


National Climatic Data Center


National Water and Climate Center


US Drought Portal


CDC Healthy Water Portal



Water Industry Training


Water Industry Whitepapers and Information



The Water and Wastewater Online Training Center is a virtual campus providing quality and targeted online training to meet the information needs of the water and wastewater treatment professional.


Texas A&M Engineering Extension Service (Water and Wastewater)


EPA Small Water Systems Training & Technical Assistance Grant

NO-COST EPA Safe Drinking Water Act Training


The Office of Water Programs at the California State University, Sacramento, College of Engineering and Computer Science provides distance learning courses for persons interested in the operation and maintenance of drinking water and wastewater facilities.


Kansas Basics Course for Small Public Drinking Water Systems


WEF offers online education and webcasts here:


Water Industry Training Specialists are a California Corporation in the business of training and certifying Backflow Technicians and Cross-Connection Control Inspectors. hosts several courses from different companies in industrial wastewater, water treatment, and environmental engineering.


Plumbing Engineer
















Comments Off on Myron L Meters Water Industry Resources – Categories : Company News, Service

Pool Draining Tips to Protect Water Quality –

Posted by 1 May, 2013 has the most advanced lineup of pool analysis meters for the professional pool maintenance technician from the Ultrapen to the PoolPro PS9. Pool Draining Tips to Protect Water Quality With summer right around the corner, many swimming pool owners will be readying their swimming pools in anticipation of the season’s heat. As part of […] has the most advanced lineup of pool analysis meters for the professional pool maintenance technician from the Ultrapen to the PoolPro PS9.

Pool Draining Tips to Protect Water Quality

With summer right around the corner, many swimming pool owners will be readying their swimming pools in anticipation of the season’s heat. As part of this process, some pool owners like to drain old swimming pool water which has been sitting all winter. Though not a necessary task, the following tips are provided for you to properly drain pool water in order to protect the water resources in your community.

Whenever possible, it is best to drain your pool onto your landscape. This recycles your pool water, conserves irrigation water, and avoids the environmental risks associated with draining your pool to the street. Before draining your pool water to the street or to your landscape, be sure to follow the guidelines outlined below.

While draining pool water to the street is a common practice, it can prove harmful to the environment if the pool owner does not properly plan and prepare prior to draining. When pool water is drained to the street, it can carry other pollutants such as oil, grease, sediment, bacteria and trash down the storm drain and into the nearest creek, river, or the ocean. Swimming pool water also often contains harmful additives and chemicals. If the water is not properly treated to remove these pollutants prior to draining, they can cause further damage to the health of our waterways and to the plants and animals that live there.

Also, prior to draining to the street, residents are asked to sweep the curb and gutter between the discharge point from their yard to the storm drain down hill from their home. This will remove any pollutants from the gutter that may be carried up by the drained pool water to the storm drain.

For chlorine pools, chlorine levels must be lowered to less than 1 part per million prior to draining. This can be done naturally, by simply allowing the pool water to sit in the sun for a minimum of three days. Alternatively, de-chlorination kits can be purchased at home supply stores at a very reasonable cost. These kits have the tools you need to reach the appropriate chlorine levels before draining your pool to the curb and gutter.

Some people have salt water pool systems which may be preferred due to the lower amount of chemicals required for their operation. However, these pools must not be drained to the storm drain system due to their high salt content relative to the fresh water systems they drain into. Total dissolved solids (TDS) must be below 500 parts per million in order to drain into the street.

Green pools,” which are pools in which algae is growing, also must not be drained to the street. In these instances, algae must first be killed and removed. This is usually done by chlorinating the swimming pool until the algae is gone, then lowering chlorine to the allowable discharge level. Cartridge filters or diatomaceous earth (DE) filters should be rinsed onto a pervious surface such as landscaped areas or grass. While DE is actually beneficial in your garden, it can build up in storm drains and clog them. DE residues can be scooped up and simply thrown in the trash or put to use fending off worms in your garden.

For more information on how to reach acceptable chemical and TDS levels, call your pool maintenance specialist.

If you are a pool maintenance specialist, consider the PoolPro PS9TKA from – the most advanced and comprehensive pool water analysis meter on the market.

PS9TK from










Pool Pro PS9TK

Measures 9 Parameters: Conductivity, Mineral/Salts, TDS, Alkalinity, Hardness, LSI, pH, ORP/Free Chlorine, Temperature
LSI Calculator for hypothetical water balance calculations
Wireless data transfer capability with bluDock option
Auto-ranging delivers increased resolution across diverse applications
Adjustable Temperature Compensation and Cond/TDS conversion ratios for user-defined solutions
Nonvolatile memory of up to 100 readings for stored data protection
Date & time stamp makes record-keeping easy
pH calibration prompts alert you when maintenance is required
Auto-off minimizes energy consumption
Low battery indicator
(Includes instrument with case and solutions)

Comments Off on Pool Draining Tips to Protect Water Quality – Categories : Case Studies & Application Stories